Modernism, as a literary movement, sparked creativity in many writers throughout the nation. Some took it upon themselves to write pieces on the movement itself and to the general public have an idea about what it means to them; the quality of thought and expression. “Lord Northbourne typifies modernism as "anti-traditional, progressive, humanist, rationalist, materialist, experimental, individualist, egalitarian, free-thinking and intensely sentimental".5 S.H. Nasr gathers these tendencies together under four general marks of modern thought: anthropomorphism (and by extension, secularism); evolutionist progressivism; the absence of any sense of the sacred; an unrelieved ignorance of metaphysical principles," (Irenaeus 1). S. Irenaeus’ The Critique of Modernism mentions the rejection of the past as a common subject, along with the ignorance that come with it.
The topic for this study cuts across more than one substantive literary and philosophical aspect in the review of literature. However, its framework is premised on a strong thematic organization based on the literary, cultural and philosophical impact of postmodernism on both of deconstruction and absurdism from 1950s to present. Major theorists of postmodernism, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Fredric Jameson and Jean Baudrillard asserts that one of the most productive readings of postmodern practices that produce a clear reading of deconstruction and absurdism is to examine oppositional thinking in terms of differ / defer syndrome and the idea of language games. A review of literature and philosophy shows that postmodernism have played a critical
This paper will address the key factors regarding surrealism by explaining its most popular methods, its goals, the historical events and founders and lastly, its impact on art and other areas. Surrealism was rooted from Dada, which is a result of World War I. Dada artists’ goals are to create a culture where people champion the absurd, the irrational and the spontaneous to relief themselves from the boundaries and anger created by the war. Surrealists, however, having realized the “cynical and nihilistic” results of Dada’s works, used the ideas from Dada to create a “more sophisticated, more comprehensive movement” (Brad Finger, 2013, p 12). Fig 1: Timeline of Surrealism. (source: self-made) In the early years, surrealism was aimed to become a social movement that involved everything from science to politic.
The distinct nature of post modernity is analyzed through the various forms of fragmentation employed in the novel. The ideology of postmodernism seems very much like modernism. But in the case fragmentation, the dividing line occurs. In modernism fragmentation is mourned and is lamented over. Postmodernism, in contrast, celebrates fragmentation.
Boundaries between Reality and Fiction are often exposed and highlighted through the use of various narrative techniques, thereby making it a fundamental element in both texts. The narrator of Slaughterhouse Five seeks to reinvent his “recount” of the “destruction of Dresden”. As written in The French Lieutenant’s Woman, we “fictionalize” our past as “We are all in flight from reality” (Fowles 97). This is apparent in Slaughterhouse Five as the narrator makes it clear that his story has a testimonial function although he does not construct the narrative in its original chronological structure. Instead, the narrator uses a nonlinear chronological narrative structure that truly reflects the indelible and traumatic impact of war.
Shaw believed that artist makes us insightful to the spitefulness of the world that we believe to be beautiful. Art and artists have a social and moral purpose not just a mean to amuse reader. It purifies the senses of the reader and makes higher their soul. Therefore he emphatically rejected the artistic responsiveness as the whole aim of art. But it is important to comprehend that Shaw does not use morality in the conventional denotation or gist.
Some of the recurring themes in works of postmodern literature turned out to be paranoia, minimalism, metafiction and twists on heroism. Heroism came to be a debatable topic in analysis of postmodern literature because of the arguable diversity between the novels. However, it’s sole purpose was not just to entertain, but like most art, for the author to express themselves in a way they haven’t been able to. As a result, Catch-22 presents Yossarian as an anti-hero used by its author, Joseph Heller, to introduce his opinion on war, war heroes and the current social status of the United States. The altered perception of heroism, believed to be present in only some works of postmodern literature, is used to convey the author’s state of mind to the reader in an
After 1945, when novelists faced the task of explaining the new historical reality and the position of the individual in the new post-war order, most realized that this entailed making a choice between traditional literary models that seemed more suitable for transmitting an accurate portrait of the individual in a changing society, and experimental, Modernist models that seemed more suitable for explaining the disjunction between the individual consciousness and the problematic flow of contemporary history. Post-modernism was born out of this dilemma. Post-modernism can thus be said to be a new cultural atmosphere in which the writer is inevitably aware of this open choice between tradition and experimentalism, rather than a continuation of Modernism or a reaction against it. Post-war novelists cannot escape the shadow of either Modernism or Victorianism and must accommodate both in their work. Some have produced a new synthesis –which is what is really characteristic of post-modernism– while others have openly acknowledged their allegiance to either literary tradition or experimentation.
It originated from philosophical, scientific, political, and ideological shifts that occurred as a result of the Industrial Revolution, continuing all through World War (“Modernism” 4). In essence, modernism is an extension of the rejection of enlightenment, positivism, and faith. Characteristics of modernistic poetry include allusions, linguistic fragments, as well as highly vivid diction (“Modernism” 2). The strong emphasis on emotion, memories, and personal imagination coupled with its central concerns of objectivity and detachment in “After Apple Picking” and other modernist poems brings new perspectives to traditional poetry and offers a means of “out of the box” thinking in terms of established poetic conventions. Modernist poems characteristically question the “self” as opposed to the “group”, and highlight the fragmentations of feelings and remoteness of the outside world to the speaker of the poem (“Modernist” 7).
Compare and contrast the poems “Marina” and “Gerontion”, noting how they share certain modern techniques and themes Modernism is used to describe new and distinctive features in literature especially those features that emerged after World War I. Features signified by modernism are used differently with every user however their uses all involve diverting from traditional bases of Western art and culture (Abrams 167). Eliot, one of the most influential Modernist poets, experimented with new forms and new styles that caused disorder which was contrasted to a lost order and integration that he claimed had been based on the religion and myths of the cultural past (Abrams 168). This essay will compare and contrast Eliot’s poems “Marina” and “Gerontion”