Pharaohs during the 30th dynasty maintained Egypt’s independence. During this time they were still battling the Persians in alliance with the Sparta and Athens. Egypt tried to reassemble the new kingdom by invading Syria. After many attempts the Persians finally reconquered Egypt (341B.C.). The Persians did not rule Egypt for very long. In 332 B.C, Alexander the great conquered Egypt, this was part of his plan to take over the Persians. The Egyptians thought that he would give them back there independence, but unfortunately he didn’t. After the death of Alexander a man named Ptolemy ruled. He made sure that many knew that the Greeks had conquered Egypt. In 50 B.C the Ptolenies Greek kings of Egypt were weakening in power, and with the help
1. What motivated and sustained the long-distance commerce of the Silk Roads, Sea Roads, and Sand Roads? Why did the peoples of the Eastern Hemisphere develop long-distance trade more extensively than did those of the Western Hemisphere?
During the ancient world, an empire was a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire, or Roman Empire. To make a successful empire, it needs a healthy mixture of military, a strong efficient leader, a sturdy government, religion, trade or spread of ideas, and social ranking.
Between 300th century and 1400th century, the most powerful African kingdoms had achieved great goals, such as developing a trade system. The empires in Africa had a solid economy which was supported by their trade. Before the Europeans arrived, these empires had hierarchies and roles in society, which helped the trade system flourish. Some achievements Africa accomplished included trade, wealth, and a complex society.
The Silk Roads played an important role in connecting Afro-Eurasia, both culturally and economically. The term “Silk Roads” was first used by Baron Ferdinand von Richtofen, a German geographer from the 19th century. He created the phrase to describe the routes between India, China, and the Mediterranean, which were used to transport items such as silk, livestock, glass, and precious metals. Historians have speculated that the roads might have been used as early as 2000 B.C.E. In the last century B.C.E., the Silk Roads experienced a golden age. Agrarian and pastoral communities surrounded many regions of the roads, which resulted in faster, safer travel for traders. Eventually the Silk Roads usage declined, as pastoral communities diminished and merchants began finding other routes.
The Assyrian empire and the Persian empire were two of the earliest major empires in the world. The Assyrians came in to power first, ruling from 900 BC to about 600 BC and with the help of Cyrus the Great, the Persians rose to power around 550BC. The Assyrian and Persian militaries shared many similarities, but they also differed in some aspects. Some of their similarities include their battle tactics, the organization of their armies, and their success in conquering societies. One of the major differences that stood out the most was that the Assyrians used a more brutal approach when conquering and the Persians used a more enlighten approach and were more tolerant. When comparing the two military systems, it is easy to see that the Assyrians were a more hostile group than the Persians.
During the time period of 600 CE to 1450 CE, people on the Indian Ocean sea lanes and on the Eurasian Silk Roads traded luxury items and used their new technology to help trade prosper. Although they were both trade routes, the Indian Ocean sea lanes traded overseas and the Eurasian Silk Roads were land routes. Indian Ocean sea lanes connect Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa. The Eurasian Silk Roads connected East and West China to the Mediterranean.
Sir Thomas Roe, an English diplomat and ambassador to Constantinople once said "The Ottoman Empire has the body of a sick old man, who tried to appear healthy, although his end was near." Definitely, the Ottoman Empire wouldn't stay strong and young forever. Due its fast and rapid success in expanding, having a strong court system, and having an efficient system of taxation, other great powers in Europe felt threatened. After all, if the empire was expanding and gaining much power quickly, it would be unexceptional for it to invade one of these great powers. Europe sensed the Ottoman jeopardy, so countries such as Britain, France, and Italy allied and plans were made to ensure the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Ancient Egypt was the most advance civilization of antiquity. They had fairly advance Medicine, Architecture, Religion, and were also wise in philosophy. Greek culture learned a lot from Egypt, and they constantly referred to them and sought to find their ancestors in Egypt. The Nile was a fundamental element for the flourishing of the civilization of ancient Egypt, most of the population of cities were in the Nile valley and the Delta. The Nile was vital to Egyptian culture from the stone age. Climate change, and desertification, dried the hunting and grazing lands of Egypt to form of Sahara Desert, around 8000 B.C; then the inhabitants emigrated and settled next to the river Nile, where they developed an agricultural economy and a centralized society.
During 600 BCE and 600 CE, many countries was going through a drastic change. When analyzing early civilizations, it’s evident there is similarities and differences. The Middle East, China, and Africa were among few countries that advanced during this aeon. All of these empires within the countries have risen and fallen, developing these civilizations to what we know of today.
Babylon’s thick walls and strong gates were not able to keep the Persians. In 539 B.C.,Babylon and the rest of Mesopotamia fell under control of the Persian empire. Within a few decades, the Persian empire became the largest in the world,so far.
The Kingdom of Kush was one of the first major kingdoms. Influenced by the Egyptians, through trade, the Africans gained knowledge of Egyptian ways, such as the use of hieroglyphics and pyramid building. With the decline of the Kushite dynasty in the influence of Egyptians, the golden age of Meroë rose. Their favorable location and natural resources, such as iron ore, help them focused on creating tools and weapons. Later on, they became a major manufacturer, which help attract merchants. Here they traded for jewelry, glass bottles, silver lamps, and fine cotton cloth. Their wealth grew, being able to spend their money on the extravagant palaces, gold for the royal family, and the ability of kings who died to be buried in stone-faced pyramids. Between the 300s and 700s, Aksum grew power. Due to their location, they became a successful trading center. Like port cities today, Aksum was along the Red Sea, with easy access. Being a major water port, ships can easily enter to import and export goods. With different trading routes that pass through Aksum, shown in Document 1, Aksum is opened up to the different merchants and goods, as they all come from different places. Around the same time, the Axum, found in the eastern region of Africa, capital of Ethiopia, conquered Meroë. The influence of the Persian and Arab merchants brought the conversion of most to Christianity. On the other hand, the western region of Africa gained power through empires. Three major empires grew in power, the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. The forest region of Africa had a dense amount of gold. In secrecy, miners dug up the gold. The importance of gold in trade also brought the importance and need for salt. The trade routes crossed over the Soninke people. Their king, called the Ghana, put a heavy tax on both slat and gold. This wealth led Ghana to become a well-established empire. In Document 3, the Arabs who wanted gold and the
According to Document 1, the Kingdom of Aksum peaked its existence in Eastern Africa during 325 and 360, and became an important international trade route. Unlike many other kingdoms,
About three to four million years ago, the first humans classified as hominids lived in Africa. Australopithecines were bipedal and were able to make simple tools out of stone. Louis and May Leakey discovered a hominid that they named Homo habilis. These hominids were the first to make tools. With a larger brain, they were able to make better decisions when it came to searching for food. Around 1.5 million years ago, a new variation of the hominid emerged. They were named Homo erectus and were able to make more sophisticated tools. They were the first hominids to leave Africa and travel to parts of Europe and Asia.
There are many similarities and differences incorporated in West Africa’s and Southeast Asia’s patterns of interaction with Eurasian trade routes. In comparison, both used the silk road as a method of trade and commercial interaction, which let to both continents being able to assimilate the factors of gaining new resources and customs; second they both took advantage of the use of water for travel and this led through many Eurasian routes in order for them to culturally diffuse. However, Southeast Asian’s from the interaction of the Eurasian routes, was mainly or religious purposes; meanwhile Africa used the routes for profit through slave trade.