Add 50 to 100 ml of freshly neutralized hot ethyl alcohol and about one ml of phenolphthalein indicator solution. 4. Boil the mixture for about five minutes and titrate it against the standard alkali solution while shaking vigorously during the titration. The weight of the oil taken for the estimation and the strength of the alkali used for the titration shall be such that the volume of alkali required for the titration shall be such that the volume of alkali required for the titration does not exceed 10 ml. Calculation: Acid value= 56.1VN W Where, V=Volume in ml of standard potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide used N= Normality of the potassium hydroxide solution or sodium hydroxide solution; and W=Weight in g of the
The pH was adjusted to 9.5 with 2M NaOH. 20 g of NaOCl (in which 4% active chlorine) was added drop-wise to the slurry over a period of 30 min, while maintaining pH range 9.0-9.5, with constant stirring 30±2°C. The reaction proceeded for 10 min after addition of NaOCl. After the reaction, the pH was adjusted to 7 with 1M H₂SO₄ and the oxidized starch was filtered, washed four times with distilled water by using centrifuge and dried in oven at 30±2.0°C for 48h. Dried starch was powdered with morter and pestle and passed through 200 mm sieve and the powdered oxidized starch was kept in a polythene bag.
The supernatant was assayed for SOD activity by following the inhibition of epinephrine auto-oxidation. 0.5ml of sample was diluted with 0.5 ml of distilled water, to this 0.25 ml ethanol, 0.5 ml of chloroform (all reagents chilled) was added. The mixture was shaken for 1 min and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min. The enzymatic activity in supernatant was determined. To 0.05 ml of carbonate buffer (0.05 M, pH 10.2) and 0.5 ml of EDTA (0.49 M) was added.
It has been prepared with some modifications. ZP was prepared as follows: typically, 5 g ZrOCl2.8H2O was refluxed with 50 ml of 12 M H3PO4 at 100 °C for 24 h. The obtained precipitate was filtered off and washed with 0.1 M H3PO4 until free of chloride ion. Finally, the solid was washed with distilled water several times until the neutral pH and dried in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. The final product was ground into fine powders and confirmed by XRD (Fig.1). The ZPFe was prepared through an ion-exchange reaction[50, 51] (. 3 g of ZP was dispersed into the 50 ml deionized water at 50 °C.
(2010), different structure of crystal will have different physical characteristics, thus can alter the use of the chemical. The physical characteristics that may be differ include solubility, density, melting point, colour, size and shape of the crystal. In term of stability, β’ is more stable than α but less stable than β. β’ crystal form is suitable for margarine, shortening and bakery products because it gives smooth texture, shiny surface and good meltdown properties. Meanwhile, β will gives hard texture, loss of spreadibility, brittle and unpleasant product. To test the polymorphism of the fat, X-ray diffraction technique can be used.
The feed composition for this process has a NH3/CO2 ratio of 3.5:1 and is fed to the autoclave operating at a pressure of 200 atm. There is a conversion of 60% of the ammonium carbamate into urea. Absorption is used for recovering the unreacted gases partially by a recycle. Recent modification to this process includes adding of another autoclave in parallel so as to increase the conversion above 60% and for minimizing the effect of received water. Where one autoclave has an inlet feed of ammonia and carbon dioxide and the other autoclave has ammonium carbamate as the feed for
29) The results are recorded. 30) The left and the right beaker are emptied and cleaned to begin the next course. 31) Nine millimolar of Urea is injected into the left beaker. 32) Deionized water is injected into the right beaker. 33) A sixty-minute timer was started to see how the 9 Urea (mM) solvent diffuses through the 100 (MWCO) Dialysis Membrane.
Composite washed with aquades. Dried in the oven at the temperature 50⁰C for 24 hours. Composites are characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and SEM 2.2. analysis of Silica In Composite By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Each as much as 0.1 gram of the mixed aqueous solution of HCl added composite 2.5 M and 0.5 M HF with a total volume of 10 ml for through a process of dissolution for 1 week. The total concentration of Si contained in the solution to be analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on long wave 213.86 nm. The making of the Si standard solution done by dissolving 0.1 grams of The metal in solution 20 ml HCl 37% and added aquades to the volume of 100 ml of The solution thus obtained 1000 ppm.
The mixture was shaken using shaking incubator at 200 rpm for 120 min at 5000C. The mixture was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min at room temperature and the supernatant was taken. This supernatant was stored at -2000C until further analysis. Preparation of watermelon extract Ten grams (10 g) of dehulled powdered sample were mixed with 150 ml of respective solvents, aqueous methanol (50%) and methanol and placed on water bath at 40 °C for 18 h with stirring/shaking. The extracts were filtered and concentrated by rotary evaporator.
1. (NH4)2SO4 and GO with a mass ratio of 1:5 were mixed and dispersed in deionized water. The mixture was thoroughly dispersed by sonication for 30 min, most of the water was subsequently evaporated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator. The resultant mixture was completely dried by lyophilization, and then the solid was heated at 235ºC for 30 min under flowing N2. 2.3 Synthesis of SRGO-supported