Model of Listening There is some important aspect to identify listening and expand listening skills as it is covered all models of listening such bottom-up, top-down, and interactive model of listening. Those models expose all process of listening acquisition as Flowerdew and Miller state Bottom-up means that it used as many times as that by using the smallest part in individual and then listen to the sound of voices joined together to make syllables into words which continued into word, phrase clause, and sentence . Eventually merge together to form a sentence or conversation text. While Top-down listening model means hearing is based on knowledge and situation. The knowledge situation, context, text, conversation, phrases and sentences make listeners easy to get comprehension of listening discourse.
After that combine the sounds and pronounce the word. Later he/she will think the meaning of the word. Top down Opposite to the bottom up process, top down process will decode meaning by, drawing on the listener 's own prior knowledge and expectations. This emphasizes on when we use knowledge of grammatical, syntactic and lexical rules to make meaning of what we want say. So we know Language processing involves the reconstruction of meaning through prior knowledge.
For instance, when a reader cannot build up meaning by using the appropriate content schemata( related with the content area and cultural knowledge) she may utilize bottom-up processing ( by word to word analysis of the text to find the meaning from the text)to make up for the missing knowledge. Similarly, when a reader lacks the bottom-up skills necessary to comprehend a text, she can resort to top down processing to obtain the required meaning. Research thus suggests that the interactive model is more effective than other models for the following reasons: • This model allows the readers to bring their own background knowledge and experiences to the reading of a text. • This model combines both top -down and bottom-up strategies that could provide the opportunity and scope for students to utilize their preferred strategies for decoding and interpreting the
Pienemann's Processability Theory (1998) claims that the speech production of a language learner at the time is an in dication of his/her limitation to process information. That is, while the native speaker's speech processing is automatic and is able to construct sentences without paying attention to grammatical items such as number, case, gender and person, the L2 learner must pay attention to grammatical items at the beginning of language acquisition. The locus of this kind of attention is at the working memory level and its capacity is highly limited. L2 learners' speech production, accordingly, is limited by the interaction between working memory capacity and the limited time for information processing during the course of speech production.
When learners listen, they have a purpose and definite expectations, so it can be helpful if there are visual or contextual clues to discover the meaning of the given text. Furthermore, he states that the learners’ attention is on speaking, so they underestimate the importance of listening comprehension. However, the development of listening comprehension is an essential requirement to develop speaking skills because without understanding there is no speaking. Chastain argues that undeveloped listening
Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills. Phonics can be taught both implicitly or explicitly. Implicit phonics begins with a whole word and then looks at beginning sounds, ending sounds and context clues. Explicit phonics does the reverse by building from a single letter to a
When a listener listens to a speech stream, his brain will carry these two processes simultaneously to help him to make sense of what he is listening to. Decoding helps a learner to match the sounds he hears into a block of words that he thinks it is. In 2010, John Field mentioned that the learners should adapt to the unfamiliar characteristics of the language which are the phonology, word-forms, patterns of intonation, grammar structures and function words so that he is able to decode what he is hearing. As the learner is listening, he is not using one of these skills but maybe two or more at the same time otherwise, he is unable to listen to the rest of the speech. This is because human’s short-term memory has a limited capacity to remember words heard.
The evaluation of the processes that intercede in the production of oral language was conducted by Levelt (1989, 1993). Drawing upon the field of cognitive psychology, Levelt (1989) projected a model of speech production whose pivotal theory involved the issue that messages were “planned.” Therfore, so as to be able to produce oral language, speakers had to establish a plan on the idea of four major processes: conceptualization, formulation, articulation, and monitoring. Following Levelt (1989), Bygate proposes that the rehearsed performance permits larger concentrate on formulation and monitoring, as against the demands of conceptualization and burdensome accessing of expressions throughout the primary completion of the task (Bygate 1996). Elsewhere, Bygate (2001, 29) proposes that task rehearsal assists language performance due to ‘part of the work of conceptualization, formulation, and articulation carried out on the first occasion is kept in the learners’ memory store and can be reused on the second
OTHER ACTIVITIES INVOLVED Here the listener analyzes, evaluates and summarizes. Here the listener merely listens. 1.3 DIFFERENT SIGNS OF ACTIVE LISTENING DIFFERENT SIGNS OF ACTIVE LISTENING: Generally speakers want listeners to demonstrate active listening using verbal and non-verbal cues. NON-VERBAL SIGNS: People who are listening attentively are likely to use these non-verbal signs to show that they are attentive. • Smile: Small smiles can be used as a gesture of acknowledgement towards the speaker.
The input stage and the output stage. Receptive skills in which people extract meaning from the source they read or hear, belong to the input stage. Language skills can also be classified according the medium as well, Listening, and speaking belong to the oral skills, while reading, writing and translating can be categorized as written skills. Listening Activities Listening, is the same as listening comprehension. The ability to take in and understand what one hears.