My group recorded higher heart rate compare to the class average when we used caffeine on the Daphnia as seen in Figure 2. Several errors could have accounted for this data. This including perhaps the Daphnia’s heart rate may have changed because of fear while being moved from the bowl to the microscope slide. Another possible error could have also been the amount of time that it took to change the solutions, which could have accounted for slight variations in heart rate. Temperature is yet a further error to account for as the microscope slide temperature was constantly changing to view the specimen, and change the dosage of caffeine or alcohol. The temperature of the solutions could also have played a factor in the Daphnia Heart rate as ideal conditions for Daphnia is 68 degrees Fahrenheit and the temperature of the solutions was not measured for.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution. Glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride were added to the mixture while refluxing, which converted the lime colored solution into a clear mixture. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the solution
The three-component mixture was separated through the isolation of each individual component. The isolation process began with o-toluidine, which utilized the addition of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and dichloromethane—to the mixture—for the formation of an organic layer that contained pure o-toluidine. Then, the addition of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid to the remaining mixture resulted in an organic layer, which contained pure benzoic acid precipitate. Finally, anhydrous magnesium sulfate and methylene chloride were added to the remaining mixture of anisole, which resulted in a pure anisole because it removed all residual water and boiled off excess methylene chloride used. The percent recovered from extracted anisole, benzoic
The items that were massed were the evaporating dish, watch glass, and NaCO3. The materials were massed once before and once after being heated in the drying oven. The mass of the evaporating Dish before was 46.57 g; while after being heating was 60.15 g. The mass of the watch glass before was 57.97 g and after was 48.75g. There were two masses taken for the substance NaHCO3- one with the evaporating dish and one without, subtracted out after the lab was concluded. The mass of the substance with the dish was 48.79 g before and 62.33 g after; meanwhile, the mass of the substance without the dish was 2.22 g before and 2.18 g after. The mass of the NaHCO3 had changed after the reaction occurred along with after it was placed on the hot plate and being in the drying oven. When the reactants were in the evaporating dish with the hotplate on, the acetic acid and sodium had been chemically bonded in a combustion compound. The mass went from two different reactants to one product and two evaporated
Therefore, liquid-liquid and acid-base extraction techniques were successfully performed to separate the components of the Excedrin tablet. According to the TLC analysis results, the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were successfully isolated from the analgesic (Excedrin tablet). In figure 1, the separation of the compound in the TLC analysis correlates with the TLC analysis in figure 2. Furthermore, Rf index calculations of the TLC analysis demonstrated that the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were separated. The Rf calculations of aspirin in table 1 shows an Rf value of .491; however, in table 2 the Rf value of aspirin was calculated to be .784. This Rf value is the higher among the other compounds because the Rf values decreases from aspirin to caffeine; therefore, this suggests that the
Based on the assumed contamination of the TLC plate and or capillary tube, it is not possible to tell whether acetaminophen was successfully separated from the Excedrin powder. The Rf values of isolated aspirin and pure aspirin were the same. This demonstrates that the aspirin was successfully separated and is relatively pure. The isolated caffeine sample had a higher Rf value but when viewed under UV light, the markings of isolated caffeine were within the bounds of the pure caffeine, leading to the conclusion that while isolated the caffeine sample was note
9. Sodium sulphate was then added to each beaker to dry the liquid by getting rid of any remaining water from the solution. The sodium sulphate was then filtered and discarded.
Caffeine is a chemical found naturally in few plants all over the world. From these plants it is processed into its pure form and then put into other things such as soda, energy drinks, tea, and pills. Energy drinks and soda are some of the most widely marketed products in the world, even though they contain the highest concentration of caffeine outside of pure caffeine supplements. It is a stimulant that affects everyone in strange but semi predictable ways. Research has been done on this topic since the 1920’s and many different conclusions have been reached. In modern schools of thought, caffeine has been found to be a lightly addictive, moderate to severe stimulant that affects neurological function in various ways, though scientists disagree
Lumbriculus variegatus, also known as blackworms, are relatively small specimen. Their physiology is so simple that the organisms lack a respiratory system and heart. Henceforth, blackworms rely on diffusion in means of gas exchange through their tail segments and muscle contractions of the dorsal blood vessel (Laboratory Manual BIO 10200, p.69). The circulatory system of the blackworm is closed containing arteries, veins and a muscular pumping dorsal vessel which contracts enabling blood to be moved from the posterior end, where gas exchange occurs, to the anterior region, the head of the
According to Yong, Coffee Berry Borers are beetles that can make holes into coffee berries and lay eggs in the bean itself. The experiment was to see why the Coffee Berry Borer can withstand caffeine while other beetles clearly can’t stand its own with the poisonous caffeine. Ceja-Navarro and his team set up an experiment where they tested the beetles by first examining the feces of their normal diet. Then they promptly fed the beetles with an antibiotic and once again examined the feces. The feces of the beetles that were fed antibiotics was chock full of caffeine. Then, the beetles were given a chance to breed which resulted in failure; most of the eggs and larvae died because of the loss of the microbe. Scientists found HhMAN1
The Main Purpose of this experiment was to determine the percent by mass of water in the hydrated salt. The second purpose was to
Metabolism is the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions within a living organism to sustain life. The energy required to perform these reactions is provided by oxygen in the form of ATP, therefore the oxygen consumption rate can be measured to determine the metabolic rate. Since oxygen is obtained through respiration, the efficiency of an organism’s respiratory system affects its metabolism. Previous studies have shown that caffeine affects the human respiratory center and occasionally dilates bronchus. It can thus stimulate human respiration and increase the metabolic rate (Haggins et al, 1915).
Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. In fact, it is estimated that every year, more than 400 billion cups of coffee are consumed all across the world. For many, it is the choice of drink early in the morning before work while for others it is the drink of choice when they want to burn the midnight oil. Well, whatever the case, there are many benefits in drinking coffee and some are quite shocking and unexpected too!
Abstract — This experiment was conducted to familiarize the students with the procedures regarding distillation—to be more precise, the separation of ethanol from an alcoholic beverage—using a distillation set-up consisting of boiling chips, a Bunsen burner, a condenser, a thermometer and several other materials. In the end, it was discovered that one may actually separate a homogeneous mixture, given that the components of said mixture differ in volatility and that they utilize a complete distillation set-up and follow laboratory safety rules and regulations.