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Lab Report Determining Unknowns Through Distillation

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Determining Unknowns Through Distillation Introduction Distillation is a technique of separating two miscible liquids by their boiling point differences. This experiment uses distillation to separate and identify two unknown compounds. The two types of distillation are simple and fractional. Simple distillation is used to separate miscible liquids that have a boiling point difference of 100 C or more, while fractional distillation is used to separate miscible liquids that have a boiling point difference of less than 100 C. Simple distillation and fractional distillation have two similar but different apparatuses. The fractional apparatus is set up the same as a simple apparatus, but a column packed with steel wool is added in between the boiling …show more content…

Although simple distillation has a simpler set up and thus less time consuming, fractional distillation is more accurate, and is better at separating the components, especially with complex mixtures. When carrying out distillation, boiling a liquid solution allows the vapor to pass through a condenser to cool and then condense. The pure, condensed vapor is now a distillate and is then collected in a receiving flask. The distillate is collected in a flask to isolate it form the rest of the mixture having a different boiling point. By recording the first drop of the distillate collected and the temperature of each millimeter collected during the course of the experiment, the boiling point can then be determined. Specific to the experiment, the distillation technique will be used to separate the two miscible liquids, conclude their identities based on the boiling points …show more content…

Avoid any direct contact and always watch material being heated. Never heat a sealed vessel and always add boiling chips to liquids before boiling. When using a heating mantle, do not plug directly into an outlet, but instead plug into a Variac voltage controller to prevent the mantle from burning out or sparking. If over-boiling occurs, remove the mantle completely away from the flask. When setting up the distillation apparatus, securely clamp and seal each part as needed to avoid any breakage of glassware or leakage or hot chemical vapors. Be sure to always wear safety goggles, gloves, and a lab coat. ♣ Methanol is highly flammable and should be kept away from sources of heat. It is toxic, so do not ingest or inhale, and should be cleaned with water immediately upon skin or eye contact. ♣ Ethanol is highly flammable and should be kept away from sources of heat. It is toxic so do not ingest or inhale, and should be cleaned with water immediately upon skin or eye contact. ♣ Water is safe chemically, but can cause severe burns at high temperatures. Do not drink during lab for it may be

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