Top agar was dispensed into 50ml test tubes and then autoclaved for 15 minutes at 121℃ as well. Stored the top agar at -5℃ refrigerator when it cooled down. Preheated top agar for 20 minutes to liquefy before use. The optimal dispense temperature for top agar was 45℃. 3.3.4 Preparation of CaCl2 solution The molecular weight of CaCl2 was 111 g/mole.
The first of the four test was a Gram-stain. Once the experiment was completed the slide was then placed under a microscope where it was then categorized as Gram-negative bacilli. Its pink color when viewed through the microscope indicated that the test was Gram-negative and its rod shape indicated the morphology was bacilli. With these results the next test to be conducted was the citrate utilization test. A citrate tube was inoculated with P. aeruginosa and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius at 24 hours.
The first method is broth culture. In broth culture, Escherichia coli are grown in a liquid medium. It is shown that the nutrient broth appeared to have sediment. This shows that Escherichia coli carries out anaerobic and aerobic respiration as it can survive anywhere in the broth. The second method is agar slope culture where Escherichia coli are grown on a slant agar in a test tube.
Crystal violet was then added for 60 seconds before being washed off with water. The mordant, Gram’s Iodine, was added for another 60 seconds before getting washed off with water. The heat fixed smear was then washed with 95% alcohol until the wash ran clear, leading to the final step of adding Safranin for 45 seconds before being rinsed with water. The slide was finally blot dyed with bibulous paper before it was placed under a microscope to observe the color and shape of the bacterium. 2.2 Litmus Milk Reaction A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours.
After which the digestions were examined by gel electrophoresis. The samples were run on a 50 mL 0.9% (w/v) agarose gel in 1X TAE buffer at 100 V until the leading track dye traveled 2/3 the distance of the gel. The gel was then soaked in GelRed for 20 minutes and examined under UV light. To prepare the digestions 10 μL of each digestion was mixed with 2 μL of 6X track dye in a micro centrifuge tube. 12 μL of 1 kb DNA ladder and each digestion was run on the
The solvents DMF and methanol were distilled for purification. Other chemicals were used as obtained. 2.2 Preparation of polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene monomer. Styrene (1 mole) was taken in a round bottom flask (RBF) fitted with a reflux condenser. DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring.
We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8. After neutralize, we collected benzocaine by vacuum filtration. We used a Buchner funnel to collect benzocaine. We used three 10 ml of water to wash the product. After the product was dry, we weighed, calculate the percent yield and determined the melting point of the product.
Once a prevalent color change had been observed at approximately 4 minutes (blue green color) the crucible was set on the counter using the tongs to cool for approximately 5 minutes. The appearance after this period resulted in another color change back to white. The crucible, lid, and hydrated copper sulfate was weighed again to calculate the mass of water lost by dehydration (described in table 1.3). This was done by subtracting the final mass by the initial mass of the crucible, lid, and compound. The mass of the crucible would remain unchanged while the mass of the compound would be altered.
2. Experimental 2.1. Catalyst preparation The CuMnOx catalyst was prepared by the co-precipitation method, the aqueous solution manganese acetate (Mn(CH3COO)2.4H2O) and copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2.2.5H2O) were premixed by stirring for 1 hour. After the proper mixing of the copper nitrate and manganese acetate solution, it was added to the aqueous KMnO4 solution by a burette under the stirring conditions. After dropped completely the copper manganese solution into the precipitant ageing for 2h, then filtered, washing several times with hot deionized water.
Isolation of Ibuprofen: Fifteen 200 mg ibuprofen tablets were used, which was 3.37g (16.34 mmol, 112.3%) ibuprofen. This amount of ibuprofen was submerged in 25 mL of acetone and stirred vigorously for 5 minutes to dissolve. Red coatings of the tablet were separated and vacuum filtration was utilized to dissolve all insoluble components. The melting point range of the crude ibuprofen was 72.4-73.9°C. The major bands from the IR are, FTIR: sp3 O-H stretch, about 3200-2500 cm-1 (b, m); sp3 C-H stretch, 2991-2868 cm-1 (sh, m); sp2 =C-H stretch, 3100-3000 cm-1 (sh, w); sp2 C=O stretch, 1701 cm-1 (sh, s); and sp2-sp2, aromatic, C=C stretch (in ring), 1507 cm-1 (s, m).
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively. The extraction efficiency was evaluated according to the percent content of AL and IS contained in the dried roots of Inula racemosa and calculated