In Back titration, excess volumes of HCl acids are added to allow for titration with NaOH. Eventually, the moles of CaCO3 can be found via stoichiometric property of the two reactants, and the mass of CaCO3 can be determined.Thus, determining the CaCO3 content in
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction observed showed that there was fizzing and bubbling, this is evidence that a new gas was being produced. This new gas, CO2 was generated from the reaction. After the fizzing stopped a liquid was leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover was the NaCl and H2O 4. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor resembling vinegar (an acid).
Ion Exchange Chromatography is a technique for ionic separation based on exchange with resins in stationary phase and the eluents in mobile phase. These stages are based on the exchanges in an anion column to attract anions or in a cation column to attract cations. cations. A column measures the conductivity of a particular ion based on its affinity/attraction to it. The speed of movement of ions through the ion chromatograph columns depends not only on the diameter of the column but basically on the affinity of the ion to the specific resin or elute selected, the size of the interacting molecules and also the resultant distance between them based on the degree of attraction and repulsion.
We are also able to better control and determine the volume of NaOH in the burette needed to neutralise HCI, CH3COOH and the unknown acid. This is because the amount of NaOH droplet can be altered when a burette is used thus, the NaOH solution can be dripped per drop at the time nearing the end point of the experiment as the colour changes rather quickly from light pink to pink. Conclusion: In conclusion, titration is an effective technique to determine the equivalence point, pH range, pKa, Ka and molecular mass of the unknown acid of the acid-base reaction. This technique is dependent on the colour change of the indicator which makes it easier to determine the end point of the experiment. Postlab Exercises: 1.
The product (Cu(OH)2) was unstable and could reform Cu2+ and OH- ions due to its high solubility. This result can cause difficulties on separating Cu from the other metals in the AMD. Therefore, additional treatment, such as sulfidization, is required to prevent the occurrence of the reformation process
The concentration of ethanoic acid in the vinegar can be determined through stoichiometric calculations, Using the values obtained from the titration, and also the chemical equation as a reference. Phenolphthalein indicator is used in this acid-base titration Equipment and materials: Commercial vinegar, Yamaha brand 0.1 mol/dm3, NaOH soloution Phenolpthalein indicator soloution (50.00 ± 0.5 cm3 ) cm3 burrete (250.00 ± 0.5 cm3) volumetric flask a (250 cm3± 0.5 cm3)
An acid is considered to be a proton donor, this means it dissociates into hydrogen ions in a solution (Wikipedia), this will correspond to it having a sour taste and sharp odour. A base is considered to be a proton accepter, this means it dissociates into hydroxide ions in a solution (Wikipedia), this will correspond to it having a bitter taste and no scent. Acids add more hydrogen ions to a solution, while bases remove hydrogen ions from a solution, so the pH can be adjusted to any value wanted by carefully combining acids and bases together, if a vinegar solution that is strongly acidic is present, the pH can be raised by slowing adding a base like ammonia which will remove some of the extra hydrogen ions from the solution. If just a little was added the pH might change from 2 to 5, making a weaker acid, but by adding a little more base enough hydrogen ions is removed to raise the pH to 7 or neutralize the solution, also by adding even more base more hydrogen ions can be removed, raising the pH until the solution becomes a strong base (Coolscience). Experiments are replicated too ensure accurate results and to verify uncertain results it also helps to refine experimental observations (ochemonline).
Titration is an analytical method used in the laboratory to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a solution of accurately known concentration referred as the standard solution. Since the volumes of both solutions and the concentration of the standard solution are clearly identified, it is possible to calculate the concentration of unknown solution. The standard solution is gradually added to the unknown solution until the equivalence point, a point at which the moles of an acid is equivalent to the moles of the base, is attained. (Chang,
The substrates will be reduced guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This reaction will produce oxidized guaiacol, oxygen gas, and water. In the oxidation of guaiacol it will change colors, this is what shows the reaction has occurred. To monitor the reaction, a spectrophotometer will be used that will measure the absorbance of light. If the substance is a darker color, it will absorb more light, and if it is lighter it will absorb less light.