Name: Avishak Deb Roy Partners: Leevell Penn, Varugh, Butler Bio 101 Lab Report #1 02.22.2018 Swimming speed of paramecium tetraurelia in different levels of treatment. Introduction Paramecia is a unicellular Protista which are naturally found in aquatic habitats. It is easily cultured in the laboratory. It is oblong shaped and covered with short hairy structure called cilia. Paramecia does not pose any health or ethical concerns and the population can be maintained if there is a food source such as Enterobacter (Biological Foundation 7).
A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom. 2.3 Carbohydrate Fermentation of Lactose, Sucrose and
We got negative for indole (no production of indole, pyruvic acid and ammonia), negative for Methyl Red (our bacteria does not perform mixed-acid fermentation when supplied glucose), negative for Voges-Proskauer (no fermentation of glucose in order to produce 2,3-Butanediol-Butanediol fermentation), but positive for Citrate utilization, which means our bacteria uses citrate as a sole carbon source and energy. Something interesting here is that according to the lab textbook organism that degrade citrate must also use ammonium salts, and in the process, they produce ammonia that causes the medium to become alkaline (under this condition the medium turns to deep Prussian blue, indicating the utilization of citrate). The genus Alcaligenes is well known for being alkali-producing
Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.”
Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable temperature 3. Controlled Variables pH, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2.
LABORATORY REPORT Activity: Enzyme Activity Name: Natalie Banc Instructor: Elizabeth Kraske Date: 09.22.2016 Predictions 1. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at pH 6 2. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at 50 °C (122 °F) 3. Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2.
Under the microscope, I was able to observe a purplish blue tetrad looking Cocci clustered together. The results for the Catalase test was an instant bubbling that turned into a bubbling over effect on the bacteria on the glass slide. This indicated a positive reaction for catalyst. The results for the MSA were negative for mannitol fermentation. There was no change in the agar and the colonies remained translucent.
Title: How Ph Levels Affected the Fermentation of Beer Hypothesis: The beer will be left with more sugar deposit as the Ph levels increase because alpha/beta -amylase will no longer function. Predictions: Alcohol Percentage Analysis for the Control and the Experimental During this experiment, the pH level was increased, therefore Alpha-Amylase was favored. Due to the nature of Alpha-Amylase cutting randomly through a large carbohydrate molecule, it leaves bigger sugars in the flask, which cannot be digested by yeast. Due to this, less reactions should occur in the experimental, therefore leading to a lower percentage of alcohol production, compared to the control.
Abstract — This experiment was conducted to familiarize the students with the procedures regarding distillation—to be more precise, the separation of ethanol from an alcoholic beverage—using a distillation set-up consisting of boiling chips, a Bunsen burner, a condenser, a thermometer and several other materials. In the end, it was discovered that one may actually separate a homogeneous mixture, given that the components of said mixture differ in volatility and that they utilize a complete distillation set-up and follow laboratory safety rules and regulations. Keywords — Matter, homogeneous and hetereogeneous mixtures, distillation, volatility, boiling point I. INTRODUCTION There are typically two categories of matter, these are pure substances
For example, fermentation occurs in yeast in order to gain energy by transforming sugar into alcohol. Fermentation is also used by bacteria, they convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. Ethanol fermentation is done by yeast and certain bacteria, when pyruvate is separated into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol fermentation has a net chemical equation: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2CO2 (carbon dioxide). This process of ethanol fermentation is used in the making of wine, bread, and beer.
Only the heated solution caused the balloon to expand, suggesting that the increase in temperature is linked to the balloon’s expansion. Furthermore, as the solution was only heated to 60°C, no water vapor was produced to fill the balloon, suggesting the gas was produced solely by the yeast. Thus, the yeast reacted to the heat, supporting the claim that yeast can respond and is alive. Sources of error in this experiment could have included incorrect preparation of solutions. The solutions of yeast, water, and sugar, could have been measured incorrectly causing the control and experimental solutions to be different.
The Effect of Sugar Concentration on CO2 Production by Cellular Respiration in Yeast Introduction In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration.
They can also act as a final electron acceptor. Many bacteria can be differentiated and are identified by their capacity to reduce nitrates to nitrites. Most of the bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae reduce nitrates . OF test is used to differentiate those organisms that utilize carbohydrates aerobically (Oxidation) such as P. aeruginosa, from those that utilize carbohydrates anaerobically (Fermentation) such as members of the Enterobacteriaaceae. The OF medium contains peptone, test carbohydrate and bromothymol blue as indicator.
What is the effect of temperatures 10°C , 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 70°C ± 1/°C on yeast fermentation when baking bread? ii. Aim: The focal aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect that temperature has on the growth and respiration of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation. iii.
There are several reactions occur when there is plenty of oxygen present. Then the energy released is used by the yeast for growth and activity. However, when the oxygen supply is limited, the yeast can only partially breakdown the sugar. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced in this process known as alcoholic fermentation. The fermentation occur when the carbon dioxide produced in these reactions.