Malate dehydrogenase: Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the conversion of malate into oxaloacetate by using NAD+ and vice versa and this is a reversible reaction. Malate dehydrogenase is not to be confused with malic enzyme, both are different enzymes malic enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of malate to pyruvate and producing NADPH. Malate dehydrogenase is also involved in gluconeogenesis, in which the synthesis of glucose from smaller molecules. Pyruvate in the mitochondria is based upon pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate, a citric acid cycle intermediate. The malate dehydrogenase reduces it to malate, and it then traverses the inner mitochondrial membrane to get the oxaloacetate out
Abstract: The Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 184.108.40.206) belongs to zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases family. The aim of this experiment was to determine the subcellular localisation of YAD in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cell was ruptured by homogenisation and fractionated by a process called centrifugation. Protein assay was carried out to calculate the concentration of protein prior to dilutions.
ASSIGNMENT 02 DUE DATE: 15 SEPTEMBER 2017 UNIQUE NUMBER: 76029608 STUDENT NUMBER: 62449842 Question 1 The general pathways for ATP generation include aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Aerobic respiration can be referred to as the breakdown of glucose molecules in the presence of oxygen and water to release energy in the form of ATP. The other products of this reaction include carbon dioxide and water.
Aim The aim of the experiments to be carried out is to determine the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, of Alkaline Phosphatase. Theory, Principles and Application of Principles Enzymes are a huge varying group of proteins which are needed to carry out essential metabolic functions in cells.
To indicate the separation effect for different ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate more clearly, Fig. 4 shows the dependence of selectivity on the water/acetic acid mass ratio in the initial mixture for various different ratios of p-xylene to methyl acetate in the initial mixture. These results reveal the general capability of mixed solvent to extract acetic acid from the aqueous phase at different feed composition. As mentioned earlier, methyl acetate has been put up in this industrial operation, since it was available as the byproduct of terephthalic acid production. As can be seen in Fig.4, a higher ratio of p-xylene to methyl acetate can produce higher selectivity of acetic acid against water. It showed the positive influence of the high amounts of p-xylene on the selectivity.
Therefore, any bubbling that was seen in the test-tubes would have been due to the carbon dioxide gas only. The equation for the reaction is as follows: WORDED EQUATION: enzymes in respiring yeast Glucose Carbon dioxide + Ethanol CHEMICAL EQUATION: enzymes in respiring yeast C6H12O6 (aq) 2CO2 (g) + 2C2H5OH
Cellular respiration There are three stages in cellular respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. The equation for cellular respiration is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Zeinab Ossaili - 7654795 Synthesis Lab – Experiment 1: Separation By Distillation The objective of this experiment is: • To use simple distillation to purify liquids. • To experience the limits of simple distillation when it comes to separations. • To use fractional distillation to separate mixtures of liquids. Method used: Distillation 1 – Distillation of an organic liquid containing a non-volatile coloured impurity • The distillation apparatus was assembled in regards to the instructions given and this was done by setting up the heating mantle followed by the round bottom flask, the reduction adapter, still head, thermometer adapter and finally the thermometer.
Dependent Variable Rate of Respiration (Rate of which CO2 is produced in ppm/s) The rate of respiration of the germinating seeds can be represented by the rate of which CO2 is produced. The rate of respiration is expected to be affected by the change in temperature of the environment. As mentioned in the hypothesis, the change in the respiration rate is most likely to be due to the involvement of enzymes in the process.
Fermentation test is used to determine if unknown #398 uses any oxygen to ferment carbohydrates and acids. Oxidation tests were used to determine if unknown #398 metabolizes carbohydrates and acids by cellular respiration. Both tests are observed by inoculation of unknown #398 into 3 sugar broths: lactose, glucose, and mannitol and 1 citrate (Citric acid) slant. Fifth test, Hydrolytic and Degradative reactions is used to determine if unknown #398 contains enzyme, amylase that hydrolyzes starch after streaking on a starch plate. Next test, inoculation of a urea broth and is used to determine if unknown #398 contains urease that hydrolyzes urea.
This process can be measured in numerous ways, such as observing the amount of heat produced or changes in temperature in general (since cellular respiration is exergonic.) Another technique is measuring gas consumption or emission using a respirometer. The consumption of oxygen and a high carbon dioxide concentration would constitute cellular respiration, since oxygen is a reactant and carbon dioxide is a product. In this particular study, oxygen was measured in three different germination time trials.
The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen.
Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.”