What makes some acts and some people deviant or criminal? Theorists attempted to shift the focus of criminology and answer the questions above. Shifting towards the effects of individuals in power responding to behavior in society in a negative way. These theorists became known as “labeling theorists”. The theorists argue that policies are implemented to address social conditions, and in turn, are collectively defined by society.
It refers to the balance of the rewards and punishments that follow as consequences of the behavior being performed. The imbalance of this variable’s may increase the probability and likelihood of the individual to commit deviant acts. Accordingly, differential reinforcement is divided into two categories which is either positive or negative, and which occurs in two ways, namely the social and nonsocial reinforcement (Akers, 1998). Positive reinforcement is real and imagined rewards for the commission of the behavior, while negative reinforcement is the avoidance of the individual to escape from the situation (Akers, 1998). In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life.
Social learning theory and social bonding theory are two theories that may be compared and contrasted because they both overlap and differ. Although these theories have their similarities and differences, one theory may prove to be more convincing in terms of applying the theory to the understanding of crime and delinquency. Social learning theory refers to Akers’ theory of crime and deviance. Akers attempted to specify the mechanism and processes through which criminal learning takes place by explaining crime and deviance; he did this in such a way that the likelihood of conforming or deviant behavior based on the influence of an individual’s history of learning was accounted for. This theory was based off Sutherland’s differential association theory, which had nine propositions outlining the process by which individuals acquire attitudes favorable to criminal or delinquent behavior with the basic idea that people tend to associate with others in which they come into contact.
One does consider this theory to be exaggerated in Hirschi 's work. For example, Robert Agnew in his work “A longitudinal test of social control theory and delinquency”. Others do agree with an importance of this theory. SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY Among the wide variety of criminology theories, I have chosen the social control theory. In criminology, such social
Though he was influenced by Darwin, Lombroso misunderstood his work and considered criminals evolutionary throwbacks of primitive forms (Mazzarello, 2011). Trait theory has evolved over time from Garofalo’s sociological tilt (crime is an immoral act that is injurious to society) to Enrico Ferri (focused on social and economic factors that motivate criminals) to a modern, biosocial trait theory, which theorizes each person is mentally and physically unique, does not possess equipotentiality (equal potential to learn and achieve), and has developed traits at birth or soon after that affect social functioning and affect criminal behavior. Physical, environmental, and social conditions work in concert to produce behavior. The last part of the theory states, instincts affect learning (rape or desire of males to control
The theory of Gottredson and Hirschi (1990) is the most popular theory in explaining crime. It originated from pure classical theory that people seek to enhance their own pleasure in committing criminal acts without special predisposition. As a whole, the theory is then called today as control theories which emphasize the prevention of crime through consequences painful to the individual in respect to their location and sanctions systems. The theory of Gottfredson and Hirschi became popular because they based it to the criminality of the individual in pursuit of self-interest in relation to self-control. The clear idea of self-control is that, people also differ in the level to which they are susceptible to temptation on the existence of social and individual control on behaviour.
It has become a means of communication, discovery and self-presentation, it is undeniable that the mass-media has profound effects on the development of the thoughts and attitudes of individuals. Whether consciously or subconsciously it infiltrates our minds and alters our perceptions of how we see others. The cultivation theory developed by George Gerbner (1967) conducted research on the impact of mass media and how as humans we inadvertently are influenced by the symbols and portrayals of the media. Through this, we construct a sense of self and who we are and aren’t. It is pivotal in reaffirmation and creation of attitudes we have.
It can also be said that deviant behaviour is one of the means for the society to change over time. Deviant behaviour can be seen as harmful for the society which creates an imbalance, but in the process of restoring this balance, the society will adjust to the norms (Faleti, 2006, pp. 16). When norms are changed in response to deviance, the deviant behaviour can ensure in building long-term social stability. Although, it seems that the concept of structural functionalism supports deviance and encourages people to act in a manner which is socially unacceptable, but the concept only explains deviance and how it impacts the
The normative theory often classify different types of deviance, and they also try to identify the factors which leads to the deviant actions, in example, psychological, economic, social or environmental. In the case I chosen, the factors of deviant act of Manisha Patel might be based on psychological and social factors. Thus the way to overcome or solve this case, Durkheim had identified two types of sanctions, which are; repressive sanctions, which the aim is to punish the offender, and restitutive sanctions which would not bring any harm or suffering to the offenders, but it try to repair the disturbed bond and bring it back to the normal form. However, the most suitable one for Manisha Patel is the restitutive sanctions, because she seems to have problem with her personality and psychology. This can be proven by the way she denied that she murdered Joshi, and the way she decide to stab her own self to prove that she is not