Although occupied few jobs for very low pay, women were still not considered a part of the work force and they did not have any formal workplace rights and usually faced discrimination and unfair treatment from the other gender. It was not until 1963 the Feminine Mystique was written and published by Betty Friedan which was claimed to start the women’s rights movement of the 1960s “The Feminine Mystique is remembered as the book that “started” the women 's movement and 1960s feminism in the United States.” In her book Friedan described her life as a typical housewife of the 1960s, she argued that women’s role was not just to be housewives and do housework, but instead they are a lot more important than that; she also called women to recognize their potential, to speak up and to aspire to work in professional jobs and become equal to men, “She also helped advance the women’s rights movement as one of the founders of the National
However, that was to change. In the decade of the 1920s, there was enormous social and economic change. In this change, great numbers of women went to work and earned their own income. With income comes taxation and in United States of America as James Otis U.S. politician once said, “Taxation without representation is tyranny” (Ratcliffe, 2014). Therefore, what followed was the right of women to vote; with this, the voice of women where now represented in public office changing forever the political life of the nation.
Once the 19th amendment was passed, women were able to have the right to vote. Career opportunities were formed for women. Even though women took place in the jobs that men usually did, once the troops came back from war, those men got their jobs back and women were left with nothing. Women in the 1920s were not domesticated with family life roles, instead, they pursued their own careers. Education was another important social factor of the 1920s.
The mills (factories) were built, and instead of using men to run the textile (fabrics) mills, the Boston Associates used “healthy, young, farm girls to work the mills.” Often the girls were very young and were separated from their families, lived in boarding houses, and saved some of their very low wages to send back home to their parents and to save up for their dowries (to give to future husbands). At first, when Andrew Jackson came through, he saw the mill girls dressed nicely, with parasols (fancy umbrellas) walking together. President Jackson was impressed and compared these pretty mill girls with the dirty, ugly, girl workers in England, who were dressed in rags. When the girls were working, they were supervised by strict men all day. Life as a mill girl at the beginning of the American Industrial Revolution was very hard.
The industrial revolution transformed western Europe and the United States during the course of the nineteenth century. This transformation enabled women to play active roles in the workforce. With this sudden change, women's traditional gender roles were being challenged. The movement of industrialization allowed for equal opportunity for all genders, and major improvements upon the economy. Gender roles are sets of behavior and characteristics associated with men and women.
A colonial wife had no legal rights but for single women or widows they could run their own business. They were normally married by the age of 13 or 14. They were treated as the inside caretakers. If they weren’t married by the age of 25 they were socially humiliated.
Women were either seen to help with government assistance or to have an education and to be alone. Without ever mentioning class distinctions her mother shaped her to become the best by idolizing women in magazines to people in church. As the author reached a certain age she started to key in on the family problems associated with money that became their biggest concern. “No matter how much money anybody black could make, they were still confined to the black spaces” (pg. 22) Black people disassociated class and focused their attention to race and money because they saw that is what ruled the world.
But both women whilst they work they are expected to cook, clean, and take care of children at the same time. In political side, Dark Ages women can not hold any position in government or serve as provosts or work as officials. While Saudi women have been part of the Shura Council, the top advisory body. The major difference between Saudi women and Dark Ages is even though the women during Dark Ages works the same job as the men and in the same factory she was paid less than men. Which caused women to have several jobs to earn the same pay.
Gender roles in The Bell Jar were really important to the character in the novel. Esther Greenwood thought women should have a husband that would help support their family in many ways (Telgan 25). Most women in the 1950s did not attend college to ultimately support themselves. Around that time women were expected to marry. As the novel continues, Esther did not want to feel left out because most women lost their virginity (Wagner 36).