THEORY OF THE EXPERIMENT In this experiment change in the volume of reagents by diluting with water is used as change in the concentration and reciprocal of the time taken for the appearance of blue black colour as the reaction rate. Equation of reaction H2O2 (aq) + 2H+ (aq) +2I- (aq) I2 + 2H2O Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: Decrease in concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decreases the rate of reaction (that is, increases the time for reaction to come to completion). In the reaction between potassium iodide (KI), hydrogen peroxide, Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O4) under acidic condition. Hypothesis 2: Decrease in the concentration of potassium iodide decreases the rate of reaction (that is increases the time for the reaction to come to completion). In the reaction between potassium iodide (KI), hydrogen peroxide, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) under acidic condition.
Figure.3 shows the FTIR spectra of the papaya leaf extract and papaya leaf extract capped AuNPs. The major absorbance bonds present in the spectrum of papaya leaf extract were at 3245, 2862, 1810, 1679, 1491, 1354,1106 and 790 cm-1 respectively. The broad band observed at 3245 cm-1 could be assigned to stretching vibrations of -OH and –NH2 groups in the papaya leaf extract. The peak at 2862 cm−1 is due to asymmetric stretching vibrations of methylene groups. The peak at 1816 cm−1could is assigned to carbonyl stretching vibrations of carboxylic acids.
The values of the reaction orders determine the dependence of the reaction rate on concentration of the respective reactants and generally have a following value: 0, 1, -1, or 0.5. The Reaction Orders (“x” and “y”) will be determined experimentally by measuring the initial rate of five experiments with varying concentrations of one reactant independently of the concentration of the other reactant (B). This allows us to determine the dependence of the rate on the concentration of persulfate and the numerical value of the Reaction Order with respect to reactant persulfate. This investigation involves conducting the iodine clock reaction, a reaction between sodium persulfate and potassium iodide. During the experiment, a colourless solution of potassium iodide and a solution of sodium persulfate, starch and thiosulfate will be combined into a beaker to later react into a blue-black complex.
The result revealed that the diffraction peak at 11.4°, 28.2°, 29.8° 24.5° and 48.5° corresponds to the presence of layered titanates, brookite and anatase phase in the as-synthesized TNT. In Fig.1b, the diffraction peak values of TNT and x%-CN/TNT (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) composite materials at 25.3°, 36.9°, 37.8°, 38.5°, 48.0°, 53.9°, 55.1°, 62.7°, 68.9°, 70.3°, 75.1°, and 76.0° are corresponded to the anatase phase of TNT. In addition all samples shows extra peak at 14.1°, 28.6°, 29.8°, 33.5°, 43.5°, 44.6° and 58.2° are indexed to the crystal planes of metastable TiO2 (B) phase (JCPDS 74-1940). This is because at 500 °C calcination the proton exchanged layered titanates were decomposed into TiO2 (B) phase through dehydration of protonic layered titanates. This transformation has been observed by shifting of diffraction angle of layered titanates from 2θ = 11.4° to higher diffraction angle (2θ =14.1°).
This supports the isolated product is majority made of the desired product and is largely pure. Mass spectrometry of the crude product shows the molecular ion peak is 162.1, which is the largest fragment in the mass spectrum (Figure 4) and corresponds to the molecular weight of methyl trans-cinnamate (Table 1). The base peak is 131, inferring the fragment lost is 31 m/z in size. This 31 m/z matches the OCH3 fragment of the ester, and would not result from a trans-cinnamic acid. This is evidence the product was successfully
The activation energy was calculated from the slope (Ea/RT) by linear plot of ln k on l/T, using the Arrhenius equation k = ln A- Ea/RT, where k is rate constant of the reaction at temperature T (in Kelvin), A is a constant and R is the universal gas constant. The catalytic reduction of 4-NP was studied at six different temperatures (25, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 70oC) using olibanum gum capped AuNPs as catalyst. A linear relationship was found between ln k and the reciprocal temperature from which the activation energy was measured. A plot of ln k versus 1/T, shown in Figure. 10, is a linear curve for 4-NP reduction using AuNPs.
The reason for this is due to the alcohol functional group present in the salicylic acid starting material, as it has a higher Rf value when TLC is run on the compound in which it is contained at the start of the reaction. TLC of the Aspirin product contained an ester functional group, which was expected to have a lower Rf due to residual hydrogen bonding which occurred between the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid and adjacent carbonyl of the ester. Experimental results followed this expected outcome, indicating the successful synthesis of the experimental aspirin product, which maintained a lower Rf value than the reaction starting material (Rf Data Figure 1). Experimental IR results indicated the presence if characteristic wavelength peak values that are found in a successfully synthesized Acetylsalicylic Acid (2-acetoxybenzoic acid) or Aspirin product. The IR spectra revealed the presence of the ester functional group via a peak at 1760cm-1 indicating C=O carbonyl bonding of an ester.
 proposed a new expression for the prediction of the continuum intensity (Ik) to take into account the self absorption of Bremsstrahlung for the accurate description of the Bremsstrahlung process ------ (1) Here, ---------- (2) In the present work, it has been evaluated Zmod using Markowicz’s equation (2). The estimated Zmod for BaCl2, BaCO3, BaTiO3, Ba(NO3)2 and BaSO4 are 41.267, 39.116, 37.373, 36.447and 35.077 respectively. The EB cross section for these compounds is evaluated using Lagrange’s interpolation technique, Seltzer-Berger’s  theoretical EB cross section data given for elements and the evaluated results of Zmod using the following expression ------- (3) Where lower case z is the atomic number of the element of known EB cross section z adjacent to the modified atomic number (Zmod) of the compound whose EB cross section is desired and upper case Z are atomic numbers of other elements of known EB cross section adjacent to Zmod. Seltzer-Berger’s  theoretical EB cross section data is based on Tseng-Pratt theory. The number of EB photons of energy k when all of the incident electron energy T completely absorbed in thick target is given by Bethe and Heitler 
There is a mathematical treatment called the ‘Fourier transformation’ and it is used to produce a spectrum and to interpret the data, hence the name FTIR spectroscopy. In general, infrared spectroscopy measures the ability of certain molecules to absorb infrared radiation. The radiation beam passes through a sample and then through a detector where the signal being produced is a function of optical path difference called an interferogram. The design of the FTIR is in such a way as to allow the use of capillary columns which produce sharper
Figure 15: FTIR spectra of pantoprazole sodium+kollicoat MAE 30DP Drug-excipient compatability studies: FTIR In the FTIR spectra of pure drug and different polymers it is observed that the peaks of major functional groups which are present in spectrum of pure drug are observed in combination of drug and polymers. There was no appearance or disappearance of any characteristics peak in the FTIR spectrum of Optimized formulation. This shows that there is no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers used .The presence of peaks at the expected range confirms that the materials taken for the study are genuine and there were no possible interactions occurred. 7.1.2 PREFORMULATION CHARACTERISTICS Table 23: Preformulation of powder blend of pantoprazole sodium core tablet Formulation code Angle of repose Bulk density (gm/cm2) Tapped density (gm/cm2) Hausners ratio %compressibility C1 25.7±0.03 0.34±0.02 0.42±0.03 1.24 19.04±0.01 C2 26.8±0.01 0.36±0.02 0.45±0.05 1.26