INTRODUCTION Adapted from the course module notes, there are two categories of theories and techniques in job design to motivate employees: 1. Content theories by Maslow, McClelland, Herzberg and Alderfer. 2. Process theories such as Job Rotation, Job Enlargement and Enrichment; Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, The Hackman and Oldham Model and Empowerment. Part 1 of this assignment is to theoretically analyse and review of five selected journals and articles that relevant to Job Design and Motivational Techniques under the category of Process Theories.
This five-stage pyramidal shape of model can be separated into deficiency needs and growth needs. The initial four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs) and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs). Deficiency needs occur on account of deprivation. They are said
Employee influenced including “delegated levels of authority, responsibility, power etc”. Work system including “designing of the work and the aliment of people in the work”. A new theory established by an American psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 to support the human resource management policies and choices component of the Harvard Model. This theory called as “Maslow Hierarchy of Needs”. The purpose of this theory is to concentrate on the motivation of the people using set of factors with different level.
In this milestone we will be looking at a few key items of employee and labor relations. Some items that this paper will cover are things such as employee discipline, performance management and employee and labor relations. First, we will start by looking at employee discipline. Employee Discipline: Analyze punitive and nonpunitive disciplinary approaches, and explain their impacts on employee relations. When talking about employee discipline there are two schools of thought.
The purpose of the research described in the experiment is to investigate life experienced in prison by both prisoners and guards, the psychological effect it has on both groups. To understand, “basic psychological mechanisms underlying human aggression,”(Zimbardo et al., 1973, p.1). What is the Author(s) hypothesis/hypothesis? There were two hypothetical argument in this research.
1.0 Introduction In this present chapter of study will divide into few sections with provide the explanation about the topic related of the research study which aims to identify the relationship of the workplace learning related factor among the professional qualification personnel when they pursued their career. In this chapter will include the background of study, statement of problem, research objective, research hypothesis, conceptual framework and significant of study. 1.1 background of study Learning can be related to formal and informal learning in traditionally perspectives, where it can be use in work context and education context. Learning in the workplaces was become crucial in nowadays, because of the changing of the demanding and
Porter's five forces which will be used in the analysis below are: competitive rivalry, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of customers, threat of news entrants, and threat of substitute products. A detailed analysis will be attached in the appendix (Appendix
Theoretical Framework This study is postulated on the theories, concepts and principles regarding on Workplace Bullying and its impact on employees productivity and performance. According to Einarsen’s conceptual framework Model (see Figure 1) of the nature and cause of workplace bullying (Einarsen 2003; as cited in Einarsen, 2005), three elements can describe the causes of workplace bullying: individual, social and organizational. Hoel and Stalin (2003; as cited in Lewis, 2004) suggested that there are four antecedents to organizational causes of workplace bullying, namely: the changing nature of work, how work is organized, the organizational culture, and leadership. The changing nature of work can be attributed to globalization, mergers and the current economic recession, among others (McCarthy, 2003). ‘How work is organized’ and the ‘leadership style’ of the organization can produce role conflict and poor work control (Einarsen, Raknes and Matthiesen, 1994; as cited in Jennifer, 2000).
2.2 Common Workplace issue The common workplace issue faced by employees that we have chosen and will be discussing for our project is about stress. Under this segment, the reasons as to why we chose to do this topic, symptoms of stress, causes of stress in workplace and the impact of workplace stress shall be covered. 2.2.1 Stress in workplace 1.Defining Workplace stress. There are various definitions for stress, however for this report we would like to define workplace stress as the harmful physical and emotional response by an individual caused by an imbalance between the perceived demands,perceived resources and also the abilities of individuals to cope with those demands at work. According to a 2016 report by International Labour Organization, work-related stress is based on an organization’s labour relationship and work design .The presence of work-related stress occurs when the demands of the job transcends the capabilities and needs of the worker, or when the knowledge and abilities of an individual worker is not matched with the expectations of the organizational culture and they do not possess the resources to cope.