Human population is increasing and it causes transformation of natural ecosystems into human landscapes. Human settlements, the need for farmland and, especially, industrial areas and large urban areas significantly modify their environment. Changing from permeable and moist land uses to impermeable and dry one with paving and building material can have a
It has direct and indirect impacts on environment. The impacts may be negative or positive. Demands for land are growing in the city. Managements of land to sustain that demand need to be considered. This land transformation in some sense constitutes land degradation for agriculture and grazing.
It is fundamental for the maintenance of environmental processes and the systems that support life on earth. It is also needed for the pollination of commercially valuable crops and the natural control of bugs and diseases (IAIA 2005). Currently, at least 40% of our economy and 80% of the necessities of the poverty-stricken are from our biological resources. Richer biodiversity results in greater circumstances for medical breakthroughs, development of the economy and adaptive counters to current challenges (Convention about Life on Earth). Despite these numerous benefits, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment released a major report in March 2005, featuring a significant and chiefly permanent decrease in Earth’s biodiversity.
: from rain fed cultivated area to irrigated one. Land use and land cover changes have environmental consequences, one of which is, these changes mostly dictates the volume and speed of runoff from precipitation and govern soil erosion rate. Wijitkosum (2012) states the factor that significantly affects the soil displacement by rain is the state of land cover or vegetation
Land-cover is a key and effective variable in the Earth system that is related to most of the human and physical environments. Change in the situation of land-cover is an important variable among the global changes that affect environmental systems (Otukei and Blaschke 2010). Land-cover changes play a main role in the global carbon cycle, and in the exchange of greenhouse gases between the atmosphere and the earth surface (Loveland and Belward 1997). In general, intense human activities have an increase in construction and farmland and destruction of forests, meadows and other natural resources (Lambin and Geist 2003; Lawrence et al. 2012).
From 16th century onwards, organic agriculture was gradually replaced by a farming system. This farming system is fully depend on energy-intensive inputs. Agriculture revolution in England has divided in three major changes: the selective breeding of livestock; the removal of common property rights to land ; and new systems of cropping, involving turnips and clover. Three majors changes occurs due to a group of heroic individuals, who, according to one account, are a band of men whose name is Jethro Tull, Lord Townshend ,Arthur Young, Bakewell, Coke of Holkham and the Collings. All of these men are seen as having triumphed over a conservative mass of country bumpkins.
CROPPING PATTERN CHANGE AND THE BASIC CAUSES OF ITS CHANGE Dr. S. Kumaraguru Assistant Professor of Economics, Arignar Anna Government Arts College Villupuram, Abstract: Cropping pattern means the share of different crops in farmer 's total cultivated area in an agricultural year. It is a significant indicator of farmer 's decision-making ability which shows his plan of cropping over space and time in response to the change in physical and socio-economic factors. Cropping pattern refers to the proportionate area under different crops during a agricultural year. It can also be mentioned as the series of crops at a point of time. It must ensure the greatest efficiency of man, fertilizers, irrigation and other inputs.
Scientists have been greatly concerned about the potential impacts of climate change/variability on agricultural sector in this part of the world. Consequently, several attempts have been made to study the impacts, adaptation strategies and mitigation of climate change in relation to agricultural sectors in both global and local scales. This is because the relationship between climate and agriculture is a complex one, with several feedback loops and causal relationships. For example, a study by Bradshaw et al. (2004) examined the adoption of crop diversification in Canadian prairie agriculture for the period between 1994 and 2002, weighing its strengths and limitations for risk management.
This, coupled with GOZ-sanctioned farm invasions, that grossly reduced production, has caused domestic production of the food staple maize to fall drastically over the past decade. Zimbabwe has a broad-based economy with three major productive sectors namely agriculture, mining and manufacturing (World Bank, 1999). Although accounting for only 18% of Zimbabwe’s gross domestic product (in 1996), the agricultural sector remains the backbone of the economy and society (World Bank, 1998). It provided income and employment for 75% of the population accounting for some 45% of the country’s merchandise exports and being the focus of a large share of the country's domestic trade and transport
Continuous and abrupt change in climate makes the farmers use artificial fertilizers to grow more crops, however, excessive use of fertilizers is contributing to salination, leaving soil infertile in the future. To get the best yield, crops need to