Migratory movements are caused due pressure on land because of rapid growth of population, decline in rural industries and handicrafts, lack of employment and livelihood etc. thus, migration is one of the dynamic constituents of population change and a vital component of development. Labour migration may be defined as a form of labour mobility towards districts or states or outside where industry and employment are expanding. In the other words, migration may be the phenomenon of the flow of people over shorter or longer distances from one origin to a destination either for temporary or permanent settlement. Present scenario of Construction sector and labour migration in India
Moreover rural areas became urban and industrialized following advances in agriculture, industry and shipping . British economy has been dominate by agriculture system for the centuries . At 18th century new farming systems was created that produced larger quantities for example food that can feed larger population. Great political and economic give many advantages to the British in 19th century. Despite the phenomenon of urban and industrial ,agriculture remain as the main source as supporting and supporter in industry.
The cost of the agricultural products dropped caused by increase in production , the markets became less suitable for the small farmers to sell their products. The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economic and farming technology changes. Major developments and innovations include one of the most important developments between the 16th century and the mid-19th century was the development of private marketing. By the 19th century, marketing was nationwide and the vast majority of agricultural production was for market rather than for the farmer and his family. The 16th-century market radius was about 10 miles, which could support a town of 10,000 population.
Food security issue has many reasons such as population explosion, climate change, agriculture problems and lack of awareness of the problem. Starting with the first reason, the population explosion is one of the most common reasons affecting the food security problem, which is defined as the lack of balance between (the increase in the number of births) and the resources available in a particular country. Global population growth leads to the inability of some countries to meet the needs of the people and as a result upset the balance of living
The state’s agriculture scenario has under gone a drastic shift in various aspects giving more importance to the cash crops than the cultivation of cereals. Thus annual production of rice in the state shows a trend of decrease, although there is a comparative hike
These new techniques consisted of importing high yield variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, fertilizers and mechanization. In this report, we are concerned about mechanization facet in Indian context. From time to time, mechanization techniques have been adopted in developing countries like India and were much criticized due to their inefficient performance. Besides not performing as per the expectations, mechanization further blamed for aggravating rural employment and other adverse social effects. At the same time, there are plenty of examples where mechanization has been very much successful increasing food production, productivity as well as helped rural economies to advance.
Statistically, urbanization reflects an interesting proportion of the population living in settlements defined as urban, primarily through the net rural to urban migrations. The level of urbanization is the percentage of the total population living in the town and cities while the rate of urbanization is the rate at which it grows. According to UNFPA, the first urbanization were took place in North America and Europe over two countries, from 1750 to 1950 an increase from 10 to 52 percent urban and from 15 to 423 million urbanites. In second wave of urbanization, in the less developed regions, the number of urbanites will go from 309 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2030. In those 80 years, these countries will change from 18 percent to some 56 percent urban.
It would be helpful to improve the balance of payments. Pakistan currently is facing $ 8.3 billion in its balance of payments deficit. 11- Improvement of living standards Currently due to the development of the agricultural sector to increase farmer income. This will allow farmer to build better houses and require life of luxury television, computers, mobile phones, motorcycles and many other items to improve their standard of living. Thus, growth in the agricultural sector will lead to improvements in people's living standards.
The food production cannot keep pace with increasing rate of population. Here population is increasing by a geometrical progression and food production is increasing by an arithmetical progression. This is why, every year we had to import a huge quantity of food grains by spending much of our hard-earned foreign currency. b) Declining of cultivable land: our land under cultivation is declining day by day with the increasing population. A large amount of our limited cultivatable land is being used as house building.
In India, water erosion is the biggest reason of land degradation. Because of the over-population, the demand for food, energy, and housing have considerably altered land-use practices and severely degraded India’s environment. The growing population put immense pressure on land intensification at cost of forests and grazing lands because the demand of food could not increase substantially to population. Thus, horizontal extension of land has fewer scopes and relies mostly on vertical improvement that is supported by technical development in the field of agriculture i.e. HYV seeds, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Herbicides, and agricultural implements.