Jared Diamond mentions the availability of food surpluses with the introduction of agriculture, which created the needed for the protection of food storages and therefore bureaucrats and specialization (85). Specialization is one of the major effects of agriculture. As less people were required to produce food, specialization came into effect, including the creation of leaders. With the creation of chiefdoms and beaurocrat, inequality also arises among the population. This inequality was one cause of the origins of state, according to Robert L. Carneiro.
“Political Economy of Farm size and Productivity” Introduction: The farm size and productivity in the developing countries are used to analyze the agriculture structure. One critique levelled at literature on the productivity- farm size relationship is that the measure used and land productivity is inappropriate, that is people had a perception that big or large farms size holders had higher production than those who hold smaller farms. This perception started changing when Sen (1962, 1966) observed the inverse relationship between farm size and their output, that large farms are not that productive than the small farms. This relationship explained by the relative advantage of involving the family members as labours in the small farms that
While the first principle has only economic function, the latter two principles have different social and political functions too. Therefore, a system based on only an economic principle, namely the market system, has no validity. It is an exceptional phenomenon in which the economy is disembedded from the society as an autonomous domain. This disembedding system renders the elements of production, land, labor, and money, into fictitious commodities. Through agricultural transformation land is included to the market system.
Finally, the assumption that the scheme is hunting the rice industry and the country’s finance is accepted. Besides, the source of capital funds, which farmers would gain, is an important crop so that some theorists that democracy should not be only tangible but have to be responsible. Therefore, it is important to manage resources and opportunities in spite of the people. However, the possibility that it would be the irresponsible polices cannot be denied but there are ways to reduce risks. There seem to be stillroom for a considerable measure of disagreement about resource allocation In the last resort, it’s much difficult to make a fair judgment on the rice policy.
This has led many scholars to question why Neolithic people began farming instead of continuing to hunt and gather. While there is no single accurate answer to the question, some scholars have offered various ideas of the possible cause. One scholar suggests farming was necessary because many of the large herds had been diminished by Paleolithic hunters; another scholar believes that farming was required because of population
Another tool that may use to short down the nutritional gap is better utilization of range lands. Currently, about 60% cultivated area is consisted on range lands. About 60% nutritional requirements of sheep and goat are mainly met through range grazing. In Baluchistan 90% nutritional requirements are fulfilled by range grazing (Zaffaruddin, 1977). Rangelands are not resourcefully utilized by our livestock sector due to poor management, rainfall, soil fertility and presence of some toxic plant species.
This may be a process that many people want but they must not know that conventional farming is more productive than organic farming because of the safety it provides for humans and the world. Organic is a term that many people associate with a natural process and believe that it is something that is good for the environment. What they do not realize is that organic is the complete opposite of being good for the environment. One major problem in the world today is deforestry that is a topic that has started to come up in today’s society pretty frequently. This means acreage for farmland is limited with no spare space in the near future.
Generally, a lack of understanding pertaining to the factors that hinder the performance of small-scale farmers to achieve both volume and quality exist. Thus, managers and decision makers may provide inappropriate solutions to upholding small-scale farmers in commercial markets. Despite the need for a comprehensive study on the commitment from government and the huge investments made to help emerging farmers through the Kalahari corporation project to be integrated into commercial Agri-food chains, the performance of emerging farmer in commercial agri-food chains leaves much to be desired. Ultimately, the poor performance of the emerging farmers means that the objective to allow farmers to improve their livelihoods through Kalahari corporation project is not
These reactions are letting the management and benefactors to discount the fundamental causes of food insecurity. Even worse, a recent analysis found evidence of a disincentive effect on agricultural production, exacerbated by food aid’s “continuance during good harvest years and its distribution in non-emergency regions of the country” (Teressa and Heidhues 1998:132). Part of the problem is the high volume of non-emergency food aid and food-for-work, which increases food supplies and depresses prices in local markets. To reduce dependency and create incentives for farmers and traders, at least where nascent markets exist, relief programming should shift from food to cash transfers cash-for-work rather than food-for-work, perchance financed by monetisation of food
Financial Inclusion is a flagship programme started by the RBI to bring people under the ambit of formal financial inclusion. It is now an established fact that without access to formal finance at an affordable cost, inclusive growth is not possible. In order to provide credit to the agriculture sector, which has the potential for employment generation in rural area, the RBI has initiated several programme including revising priority sector lending guidelines. Under this scheme RBI has adopted a policy of providing credit through multiple channels and simplifying procedure for small and marginal farmers. Since 2004, there has been a spurt in agricultural credit due to Govt.