Power dissipations do not algebraically add to an accurate total when there is only one source is take into account at a time. The needs for linearity also mean this Theorem cannot be applied in circuits where the resistance of a component changes with current or voltage. Other than this, another prerequisite for Superposition Theorem is which all of the components must be bilateral, which means that they act the same with electrons flowing in any direction through them. Resistors do not have polarity-specific behavior and the circuits must all meet this criterion. Thevenin’s Theory is a circuit which contains any combination of batteries and resistance with two terminals can be replaced by a single series resistor and a single voltage source.
The Langmuir isotherms for manganese are shown in (Fig. 4). The values of correlation coefficient R2 were 0.997 which were high and indicated a monolayer adsorption manganese ions onto the biosorbent.The important characteristics of the Langmuir isotherm can be described by a separation factor also called as dimensionless equilibrium parameter, R2. The magnitude of R2 obtained for T. cordifoliawas 0.977 as the values lie between 0 to1, theadsorption process for manganeseseems to be favorable. 5.2Freundlich
The VLE data of binary mixtures is often expressed as a plot as shown in above fig. This plot represents the bubble point and dew point of the binary mixture at constant pressure. The particular VLE plot shows a binary mixture that has a uniform vapor liquid equilibrium that is relatively easy to separate the curve line is as equilibrium curve line and gives the compositions of liquid and vapor in equilibrium at some fixed pressure. Azeotrope is also important concept in VLE. If the equilibrium curve crosses the diagonal line then it should be considered that there are azeotropic points where the azeotrope occurs.
While initially it seems as though the organic acid, base, and neutral compounds would never pass into the aqueous layer, the conjugate acid and base of the organic base and acid respectively are soluble in water. The conjugate acid and base were obtained by adding concentrated NaOH for acid or HCl for base, hence altering the pH to a point above or below the compound’s pKa. This created a conjugate acid or base that had a negative or positive charge respectively, and was hence not soluble in ethyl acetate and had to pass into the aqueous layer. It is also essential that the extraction solvent be easily removed. In this case, ethyl acetate has a low boiling point, so it can be evaporated away.
It is a stable, slightly hygroscopic material. It is chemically resistant to alkalis, both dilute and concentrated, and to salt solution, although it is more sensitive to acidic materials than are cellulose esters. Ethyl cellulose is subject to oxidative degradation in the presence of sunlight or UV light at elevated temperature. This may be prevented by the use of antioxidant and chemical additives that absorb light in the range 230-340 nm range. It should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 320C (900F) in a dry area away from all sources of heat.
Modeling of Contact Angle for a Liquid in Contact with a Rough Surface When a solid is in contact with liquid, the molecular attraction will reduce the energy of the system below that for the two separated surfaces. This is expressed by the Dupré equation Figure-1 2.1 Wenzel Model: The Wenzel model (Robert N. Wenzel 1936) describes the homogeneous wetting regime, as seen in Figure 2, and is defined by the following equation for the contact angle on a rough surface. where is the apparent contact angle which corresponds to the stable equilibrium state (i.e. minimum free energy state for the system). The roughness ratio, r, is a measure of how surface roughness affects a homogeneous surface.
1. Introduction Electrocoagulation is a electrochemical process in which floc of metallic hydroxides are generated within the effluent, which to be treated, by electrodissolution of anodes. Compared with flocculation process and chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation (EC) has no of advantages, such as removal of the smallest colloidal particles. Compare to conventional coagulation process, Less amount of sludge is generated during EC process. Excessively addition of coagulants can be avoided by using EC, due to the generation of the coagulants by electro oxidation of a sacrificial anode.
A low Ksp implies that the compound does not dissolve to an appreciable degree in water. If the two ions are mixed in solution, a precipitate will tend to form. If steps have been taken to remove ions that form competing precipitates, the presence of a properly colored solid can be used to confirm the presence of a given ion. If several different precipitates remain, the conditions of the solution can be manipulated to selectively redissolve one or more of the solids. When the equilibria involved are well understood, selective precipitation can be a powerful tool in the identification of unknown
5.0 Discussion Dosage form and Drug Nanoemulsion technology is cutting edge technology for the upgrade of bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulsions do not demonstrate the creaming and sedimentation sort of issues because of its little droplet size.385 Nanoemulsion had higher vascular penetrability at target sites by diffusion because of its little particle distribution. Nanoemulsion formulation gives a quick entrance of active ingredients through skin because of vast surface range of droplets. This property of nanoemulsion minimizes the extra usage of exceptional infiltration enhancer which is in charge of incompatibility in formulation. Nanoemulsion has turned into an extremely alluring formulation for the delivery of active drug