There are several factors that play an important role in learning a language, one of which is attitude. Attitude is acknowledged as one of the most important factors that impacts on learning a language (Fakeye, 2010). Attitude is characterized by a large proportion of emotional involvement such as feelings, self, and relationships in the community (Brown, 2001). It is said that language teachers, researchers, and students should acknowledge that high motivation and positive attitude of students facilitate second language learning. Therefore, learners’ attitudes could be incorporated in language learning because it may influence their performance in acquiring the target language.
In respond to the research of speaking English skill, the theory that is related would be the Krashen’s theory (1994) which is the Second Language Acquisition Theory (SLA). According to Krashen’s theory, comprehensible input and interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Since most of the respondents set English language as their second language, thus, their ability to acquire the language is limited and relies on their own motivation. As stated by Krashen (2009), a second language speaker who makes lots of mistakes, has a poor accent, and is hesitant, will most likely receive, in general, more modified input than a speaker who appears competent and fluent. As we understand, English language acquisition was contributed
It declares that learners have two different and detached approaches of improving their capacity in the target language. The first approach is language acquisition , which is a procedure analogous to the way that kids learn their source language. Language acquisition is a subconscious procedure , the effect of language acquisition is acquired efficiency , which is also subconscious. In general , we don’t have enough information about the rules that we have acquired , but we have a spontaneous feeling to correct the mistakes which we have picked up through the speech that we have heard. Other approaches of describing acquisition contains , implicit learning , informal learning , and natural learning.
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
First Language Acquisition versus Second Language Learning: Applied linguistics is the attempt to put the insights resulting from lingusic reseach to practical uses. These include first and second language teaching (Such as: lexicography, translation….etc). Our focus of linguistic application is the field of language teaching which focuses in turn on the learner and the language learning process. How is this language which is the object of study of the linguist being learnt? We have to investigate what happens in the mind of human beings through mental processes to learn a language.
The sequence in this approach is to prompt the students to find the rules after being exposed to examples. The teacher tries to help his students by showing them a series of examples then guide them to guess to which rule the given examples belong to or deal with (Mautone 2004). " an approach that starts with exposing students to examples of language use or even an immersing them in the use of the target language items and then prompts students to generalize the patterns of the language " (Thornbury, 1999, p180). In the same context, Azmi and Hanna cite that the inductive approach refers to “the style of introducing language context containing the target rules where students can induce those rules through the context and practical examples”. (2008, p.3).
The teaching methods based on constructivist approach are very effective to help students understand, recall and apply the essential information, concepts and skills. They are used to make lessons interesing, activate students ' prior knowledge, help to develop and organise information and promote questioning. Slavin( 1994,p. 237-239) discusses the important concepts of this approach as mentioned below: Advance organisers: general statements given before instruction that links new information to existing knowledge to help students process new information by activating background knowledge, suggesting relevance and encouraging accommodation; Analogies: highlighting the similarities between things that are otherwise unlike, to help students learn new information by relating it to concepts they already have; and Elaboration: the process of reflection on the new material in a way that connects it with existing
Learning is the process through which people change their behavior by doing, practicing and experiencing. That means that learning implies the modification of actions, otherwise learning is not attained. The proper acquisition of a language should be seen in the development of the students’ speaking skill. It has been confirmed that there are a variety of factors that influence the acquisition of a foreign language. In 1965, Bloom published the Bloom’s Taxonomy where he proposed a classification of the factors that intervene in the learning process into three facets: the affective domain, the cognitive domain, and the psychomotor domain.
The approach to language learning, which I find most appropriate, is to provide opportunities for the children to experience different text as it is particularly helpful in developing language skills. I would continue it and besides newspapers, fiction and nonfiction books I shall also include wrappers of different things, banners, names of shops and roads. I am hopeful that it would foster children learning and their understanding about the purpose of the different
This gradually builds up his / her language skills from the school level itself. The method should be reinforced by allotting more time in the time table for the students to exercise their spoken skills and overcome natural inefficiency and stage fear in learning the language skills that are most essential in speaking the target language fluently and effectively. The need to create a conducive ambience for the learning and expression of spoken skills as the focus of new English language paradigm is very much emphasized by Indira Nityanandam in her incisive analysis of class room atmosphere where the learners are reduced to passive listening, without an opportunity to activate and absorb their own language skills in the spoken