Language acquirers are not usually conscious of the fact that they are acquiring language, but the aye only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The stages of language acquisition is approached by two stages language acquisition that ; first language acquisition ( native language development ) and second language acquisition. 1. Stages of First Language Acquisition Babling Stage In this stage, we make speech sounds in and out of mother (native) language, moreover we also able to discriminate speech sound. - 0 – 2 months, baby accomplish crying, in this stage baby will cry to express hunger and discomfort.
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
First language acquisition is an interesting chapter. The chapter is talk about the first language formation processes in children. A child that does not hear,or is not allowed to use language will learn no language. In this section about the language acquisition schedule of children. During the first few months of life, the child gradually becomes capable of producing sequences of vowel-like sounds, particularly high vowels similar to [i] and [u].Four months: the first recognizable sounds are described as cooing with velar consonants [k] ; [g].
This is feasible by attending schools in the target country, watching television, listening to radio and reading newspapers in second language. By being actively involved in the learning atmosphere, the learner is always in touch with the target language through normal daily chores. It is extremely vital in second language acquisition to look at the learning environment and investigate if the age factor has any relevant effect. Five phases of Second Language Acquisition are as follows: It is generally believed that the process of second language acquisition takes place in various stages. In order to examine SLA, looking at the five stages of second language acquisition seems inevitable.
First language acquisition does not necessarily be one language, it can be two or more languages as well. For example, children who were born and grew up in a country where only the Arabic language is spoken would acquire only the Arabic as their first language. In contrast, children who were born and grew up in a country where both English and Arabic are spoken would acquire both English and Arabic as their first languages. Until now, it is commonly held belief that children acquire their mother tongue through imitation of the parents and people around them in their environment, linguists too had the same conviction until 1957,during that time, the American linguist Noam Chomsky propounded that children acquire their first language innately and genetically, this theory revolutionized the study of language acquisition. His theories are now accepted as true after the publication of his book "Aspects of the theory of the syntax" in 1964.
Various Theories on English Language Acquisition “How do we acquire languages?” and “Do we acquire a second language the same way as we do our first one?” are questions asked by linguists, psychologists and pedagogues regarding the acquisition of both native and foreign languages. Article’s title specifies English, since it is the most spoken language in the world and there are multiple papers and books about language acquisition written in it, but all the researches have been made regarding any first (and second) language acquisition; yet most of the researchers have used English as basis for examination and comparison. 1. Innateness Hypothesis. According to Noam Chomsky there is a language acquisition device in our brains that allows us to
Any language acquisition is based on how much we listen and read in that given language. Like we acquire our mother tongue through listening and speaking, initially imitating sounds moving on to words and sentences as infants. Reading and writing comes later when we attend school. But second language or foreign language acquisition always begins after a learner goes to school and starts with reading and writing; listening and speaking always take a back seat or rather not present at all. This situation is rather predominant in Arab countries since English is not used anywhere in their day to day affairs.
Introduction Acquiring a language is a phenomenal feat only human can do. Whichever the language people learn, they have similar social functions to accomplish. And children are considered to successfully acquire a language of their environment. This essay will discuss some of the interesting topics from the course materials and present some possible modification, as well as related research findings from second language acquisition research. Looking at Prosodic Feature: Natural Process The way children process the input from the environment around them was one of the questions that should be answered in my academic interest; therefore, it was interesting for me that children resort to prosodic features of the language when they first distinguish languages of surrounding environment, and the finding was new to me because I didn't know the process children acquire to segment the langauge.
L1 and L2 acquisition share several similarities. First of all, regarding the language acquisition stages. There are similar patterns in learning a language, whether it is for L1 or L2. Ross Ellis suggested that there are three developmental stages that any language learner goes through (1984, cited in Ipek, 2009). The first one is the silent period, which is when the learner starts by listening to the language without any interaction.
CHAPTER II 2.1.The five hypothesis of second language acquisition 2.1.1.The acquisition learning hypothesis: The acquisition / learning hypothesis is one of the most essential hypothesis to be offered here. It declares that learners have two different detached approaches of improving their capacity in the target language. The first approach is language acquisition , which is a procedure analogous to the way that kids learn their source language. Language acquisition is a subconscious procedure where the effect of language acquisition is acquired efficiency , which is also subconscious. In general , we don’t have enough information about the rules that we have acquired , but we have a spontaneous feeling to correct the mistakes which we have