Language Analysis: Morphology And Syntax

730 Words3 Pages
Section 2 - Morphology and Syntax

In this section of my Language Profile Project, I will be discussing two more branches of linguistics – Morphology and Syntax. Morphology is the branch of linguistics that deals with words, their internal structure, and how they are formed. Additionally, a morpheme is the smallest unit in a language that can carry meaning. There are numerous types of morphemes, which I will discuss in detail further on in this section of my project. While morphology is basically considered to be the structure of words, syntax can be referred to as the structure of sentences. In order to make sense, sentences have to follow certain structural roles. Again, syntax will be discussed in greater detail further on in this section.
…show more content…
All morphemes, however, can be defined as either free or bound. Free morphemes are morphemes that can stand by themselves as single words. Contrastingly, bound morphemes are morphemes that cannot normally stand alone and are typically attached to another form. Free morphemes can be divided furthermore into two groups – Lexical and Functional morphemes.
Basically put, lexical morphemes consist of ordinary nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs; the words that carry the meaning of the message being conveyed. Functional morphemes consist of the functional words in a language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns.
Lexical Lexical Functional Lexical Lexical Functional Functional Lexical Lexical
Cada día el gato duerme en la misma estera
Every day the cat sleeps on the same mat
Example
…show more content…
Every language has different processes regarding word formation.
There are two ways to create new words:

Derivation : that is to form new words from root words by attaching prefixes, infixes, or suffixes. Spanish example: Papel, meaning paper, becomes Papeleria, meaning stationary store, with the addition of –eria. The process of derivation leads to the formation of derived words.

Example: 2 ) Composition : consists of the formation of new words by joining two or more lexemes belonging to as many simple words. Spanish example: para + choques: parachoques. (for + shocks: car bumper.) The process of composition leads to the formation of compound words.

Syntax in Spanish

Spanish syntax shares similarities with English syntax. As a general rule, except in questions, it isn't wrong to follow the common English word order of SVO - subject, verb, object (if there is an object, also noting that object pronouns can come before verbs or be attached to them.)
The following are some tree diagrams to represent the general word order:

El gato dormía en el tapete. ( The cat slept on the mat.

More about Language Analysis: Morphology And Syntax

Open Document