Language acquirers are not usually conscious of the fact that they are acquiring language, but the aye only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The stages of language acquisition is approached by two stages language acquisition that ; first language acquisition ( native language development ) and second language acquisition. 1. Stages of First Language Acquisition Babling Stage In this stage, we make speech sounds in and out of mother (native) language, moreover we also able to discriminate speech sound. - 0 – 2 months, baby accomplish crying, in this stage baby will cry to express hunger and discomfort.
First language acquisition is an interesting chapter. The chapter is talk about the first language formation processes in children. A child that does not hear,or is not allowed to use language will learn no language. In this section about the language acquisition schedule of children. During the first few months of life, the child gradually becomes capable of producing sequences of vowel-like sounds, particularly high vowels similar to [i] and [u].Four months: the first recognizable sounds are described as cooing with velar consonants [k] ; [g].
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
ABSTRACT First language acquisition studies have been an interesting issue to both linguists and psycholinguists. A lot of research studies have been carried out over past several Decades to investigate how Language or child language acquisition mechanism takes place. The end point of Language acquisition theories leads to interlanguage theories which eventually lead to second language acquisition (SLA) research studies. In this paper, I will show that there have been at least three theories that have offered new ideas on Language acquisition. However, two theories of Language acquisition have been very prominent as they have propounded two revolutionary schools of thought: Behaviorism and Mentalism.
Also, the capacity of the language is specific. The ability to acquire the languages or the child's first language is independent of intelligence. The acquisition pattern is comparatively orderly across children, different cultures and different languages. Language is acquired rapidity and easily, and without the instruction benefit. Children usually show creativity in their input which they exhibition to gain and acquire.
From the earlier stages of development, children learn to understand other people by tone, facial expressions, and gestures. Although these are important aspects to communication if a child is only using gestures to communicate and not words, then there might be a difficulty in language development. On average “Children will typically be able to say 50 words by the time they reach 2 years. At this age, they will start to put short two-word sentences together. Language learning increases dramatically and by three years children are using three to four-word sentences and can be easily understood by familiar adults.
This relates us back to the definition of native speaker. The native speaker learns language from the stage of infancy. In Psycholinguistics, this falls under the Infancy Cognitive Development where human being learned the ability to communicate, to comprehend and to produce spoken language when they were an infant. “Babies ' and young children 's language development is strongly influenced by the language they hear spoken around them and to them. The more babies are exposed to language, the more opportunities they 'll have to practice their developing communication skills.” (Oswalt, 2007, p. 9) When the process of learning their first language begin at early stage of adapting, it is vital to say that the first language is well-practiced throughout their whole life.
Any language acquisition is based on how much we listen and read in that given language. Like we acquire our mother tongue through listening and speaking, initially imitating sounds moving on to words and sentences as infants. Reading and writing comes later when we attend school. But second language or foreign language acquisition always begins after a learner goes to school and starts with reading and writing; listening and speaking always take a back seat or rather not present at all. This situation is rather predominant in Arab countries since English is not used anywhere in their day to day affairs.
This is feasible by attending schools in the target country, watching television, listening to radio and reading newspapers in second language. By being actively involved in the learning atmosphere, the learner is always in touch with the target language through normal daily chores. It is extremely vital in second language acquisition to look at the learning environment and investigate if the age factor has any relevant effect. Five phases of Second Language Acquisition are as follows: It is generally believed that the process of second language acquisition takes place in various stages. In order to examine SLA, looking at the five stages of second language acquisition seems inevitable.
Various Theories on English Language Acquisition “How do we acquire languages?” and “Do we acquire a second language the same way as we do our first one?” are questions asked by linguists, psychologists and pedagogues regarding the acquisition of both native and foreign languages. Article’s title specifies English, since it is the most spoken language in the world and there are multiple papers and books about language acquisition written in it, but all the researches have been made regarding any first (and second) language acquisition; yet most of the researchers have used English as basis for examination and comparison. 1. Innateness Hypothesis. According to Noam Chomsky there is a language acquisition device in our brains that allows us to