As Chomsky (1980: 48) internalized linguistic grammar system is "a certain mental structure consisting of a system of rules and principles that generate and relate mental representation of various types." Universal Grammar form the initial state of a child by all the knowledge and experience that the child is already equipped with input previously. The primary linguistic data (PLD) are helping the child critically to make the child able to determined the specific grammar form in its appropriate place. According to Lydia White "a language-specific lexicon is built up, and parameters of Universal Grammar are set to values appropriate for the language in question" (2). The grammar can
English is today one of the most widespread languages in the world as a result of the British colonial expansion started in the seventeenth century. The colonial era is now over but its consequences are visible in the presence of English as an official language in many of the former colonies, and in addition, the contact between English and native languages created some linguistic varieties also called pidgins and creoles still spoken in many parts of the world. The varieties of English are divided into geographical groups, the main two groups are English of the British Isles and English of America. For each there are standard forms and sub varieties. In America there is a standard form of English which is referred to as General American or
They also had more influence on English than the Celts. Also cities ending with –chester comes from the Romans, Manchester and Winchester for example. Anglo Saxons invaded Britian after The Romans did their thing there. Anglo Saxons consisted of germanic tribes from Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands. They gave a lot of words to the English language and they were the first to put a fairly big influence on English.
Name Professor Course Date Book Review: Everyday Life in Early America The book ‘Everyday Life in Early America’ by David Hawke provides a comprehensive account of the history of early settlers in America. It maintains that the geographic concept including the physical environment is a chief factor that influences the behavior of individuals. The author assumes that early settlers came to America in the hope of taking forward their customs and traditions while starting afresh in a foreign land. However, the physical environment brought about certain changes to their traditions and customs. The people slowly began to understand that the only way to survive would be to modify their patterns of living (Hawk, 1989).
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list of synonyms defining hard word which borrowed from Latin or French. In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes.
Introduction Acquiring a language is a phenomenal feat only human can do. Whichever the language people learn, they have similar social functions to accomplish. And children are considered to successfully acquire a language of their environment. This essay will discuss some of the interesting topics from the course materials and present some possible modification, as well as related research findings from second language acquisition research. Looking at Prosodic Feature: Natural Process The way children process the input from the environment around them was one of the questions that should be answered in my academic interest; therefore, it was interesting for me that children resort to prosodic features of the language when they first distinguish languages of surrounding environment, and the finding was new to me because I didn't know the process children acquire to segment the langauge.
Normal Language and Cognitive Development Language is a set of shared rules that allow people to express their ideas in a meaningful way. Language may be expressed verbally or by writing, signing, or making other gestures, such as eye blinking or mouth movements. Speech is talking, which is one way to express language. It involves the precisely coordinated muscle actions of the tongue, lips, jaw, and vocal tract to produce the recognizable sounds that make up language. Speech and language functions are important components in children’s development.
In other words, children are assumed to acquire language with the aid of principles of Universal Grammar: the set of principles that define the range of possible human languages". (p. 3) There are important conditions for the process of language acquisition. To achieve a general language abilities, a child of three years of age should interact with other language users to enhance his ability. A normal child has the ability to send and receive messages in the language. The child who wants to speak a language should hear the spoken language.
For centuries, English was not the official language in England. Its history with the Normans and the long period of French Kings' royalty in the country never helped the development of their own language. Through the centuries, many English thinkers promoted the importance of the English over the prestigious French and Latin, to make it become their National language, and a real part of their culture. How did the English language develop in England, and how did it become the main official language? Moreover, what are the processes of standardisation from the 12th century until the prescriptivist movement of the 18th century?
It also has a special identity in the field of education. Etymologically, English has a Germanic root. It was the combination of Norman and Danish invasions that occurred around the years 600-900 until the final combat in Hastings in 1066. After the conquest by King Harold, several other invasions, wars and the preponderance of multiculturalism in the cultural capital of London gave way to a myriad of new jargons, lexica, and other words to infiltrate the English language. Hence, the English writer ‘George Orwell’ declared that language doesn’t merely reflect culture, it itself is culture.