1). Those learners who use language learning strategies are able to store information and then use that information in an appropriate time when needed. Strategies are conscious and may be changed but are not always observable. Being more self-directed and autonomous in learning is result of using learning strategies (Oxford, 1990). One of these strategies is meta-cognitive strategies.
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.
2. The Advantages of Treffinger Learning Model The advantages of applying Treffinger learning model according to Huda (2013: p. 320) are as follows: a. Make the students more active in learning and have confidence to speak their ideas. b. Develop students' thinking skills because it presented a problem in the early learning and provide flexibility to students to find their own solutions.
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
Therefore, teachers must accommodate students who do not necessarily speak the same languages (Moodley, 2013:74 -75). To ensure that student’s education is not compromised, a target language needs to be implemented to ensure that the subject being taught is acknowledged by the learners. However the “language barrier” would also create an opportunity to code-switch, which will benefit learners to a great extent. It will not only eliminate the isolated feelings of students but accommodate their language and cultural backgrounds. Furthermore, a teacher will be able to teach their class to the extent where they will be motivated to learn.
Impact of Culture Culture is an important factor that affects one’s perception, it greatly influences one’s behavior and shapes their personality which can have a significant impact on one’s education and the curriculum. Stating the importance of culture must be assessed when teaching English Language Learners, ELLs. The challenges for many English Language Learners are not overcoming a language barrier but also achieving academically. Orosco and O’Connor state that “ELLs bring a wealth of cultural and linguistic knowledge into the classroom, but perhaps our schooling is a complex process that often separates students’ personal learning experiences from the classroom resulting in a challenge of acquiring the skills for reading instruction”.
This importance of communicative tasks, according to (McDonough& Mackey, 2000), as a result of SLA researches that some processes that happen during conversational interaction may ease second language learning. In addition, implementing communicative tasks that focus on these processes may give learners the opportunity to focus on linguistics forms in the context of meaning (McDonough& Mackey, 2000). Reason for choosing the three principles: Writing about CLT comes from my experience of working with EFL Omani learners grades nine & one. My learners had difficulties producing language orally even though they received substantial input. Reading about CLT made me conscious of its potential for addressing the difficulty in communication that my students had and this is what led me to search about the principles that I've chosen.