In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Outcomes-based assessment is comprised of a variety of methods. It is learner-centred meaning the learner is provided some input. A variety of methods or strategies such as self- assessment, portfolio assessment, peer assessment, joint assessment and group assessment. The four basic principles are (Spady, 1994): Clarity Outcomes create a clear guideline of what the learner needs to accomplish by the end of the course. Learners will understand what is expected of them and teachers will know what they need to teach during the course.
For this to take place, the teacher should understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry and structures of the discipline he or she teaches and creates learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students (INTASC Principles). This is because
They are thinking about their learning, and they're aware of how their minds are working to construct this new knowledge. They're using language to effectively communicate with one another, and they're learning in context as they engage in activities that teachers have carefully designed to be relevant to students in order to increase their motivation. We can apply these elements of constructivist theory right into our classroom teaching. Here are five principles of constructivist teaching identified by Brooks and Brooks. As we go through these principles, we'll also relate them to competency based education, both in terms of the iNACOL design principles and elements identified by CompetencyWorks.
From this discussion, one can learn that reflection in learning is a multidimensional practice that enhances the learning principles, processes and outputs suggested by a number of learning theories (e.g. experiential learning, constructivist learning, critical learning, etc.). “Reflection in learning then is the vehicle for critical analysis, problem-solving, synthesis of opposing ideas, evaluation, identifying patterns and creating meaning out of the experiences” (Caine, & Caine, 1991:3). It is possible to conclude that many of the higher order thinking skills that we strive to foster in our students in general and in student teachers in particular effect through the utilization of reflective learning (Andrusyszyn & Davie, 1997; Brockbank & McGill; 2007; King,
3) Thoughtful Interpretation of information 4). Decision making. Teachers play a major role in classroom assessment as they develop, administer and analyze the questions. They are more likely to apply the results of the assessment to their own teaching. Therefore, it provides feedback on the effectiveness of instruction and gives students a measure of their progress.
Differentiated instruction is a support or concept for effective teaching that involves showing students with different ways to learning. According to Bearne (1996). “ differentiated instruction corresponds to an innovative approach through which educators whatever their subject area, are able to bring modification to curricula, teaching methods, usage of educational sources and resources, learning events or activities as well as assessment and evaluation methods.” Differentiation in simple words means tailoring instruction to meet individuals needs that is student needs in the school context. Differentiated instruction is the way a teacher anticipates and responds to a variey of students need in class. According to Mary Ann corley, differentiated
Direct strategies: Direct strategies are those which contribute directly to learning and the development of the learners’ language system; for example, cognitive learning strategies and metacognitive learning strategies. A. Cognitive Learning Strategies Cognitive strategies include the steps and processes used in learning or problem solving as it requires direct analysis and conversion and installation of educational materials. These processes contribute to help the learner to build a linguistic concept entrance. Rubin identified six main cognitive learning strategies: • 1. Clarification/verification: It involves asking on how to use a word or expression, for the correct form to use, etc.