Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
Students should have a good understanding of the assessment marking criteria. The design of these marking criteria involves the discussion of learning outcomes. The implementation of self-assessment involves a lot of effort, reflection and planning on behalf of the tutor. Students should be made to perceive self-assessment as a natural process in their learning. They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning.
There are two approaches according to Spady, the traditional and transformational. The traditional approach emphasizes students’ mastery of content some cross discipline outcomes like the ability to solve problems or to work cooperatively, whereas, the transformational approach emphasizes longterm, cross-curricular outcomes that are related directly to students’ future life roles such as being a productive worker or a responsible citizen or parent. The approaches mentioned strongly suggest the use of authentic assessment methodologies in the various
One assumes that students will be different after a unit of work has been taught. The question arises as to the degree of difference. Hence, measurement assessment, and evaluation are important to determine the degree of difference. Within this context, classroom instruction enables students to achieve intended learning outcomes. In so doing, the teacher becomes a predictor.
From this numerous specific and measurable objectives can be derived. It’s your motive and intention to aspire the learning outcome. How do I identify my Objectives:- In education, learning objectives are specific statements that explain what the learners ' will exactly do by the end of the course, programme, or module. Objectives are the foundation and basis for constructing an effective course. Perhaps objectives are the directive factors for the course writers to decide on the instructor teaching and learning activities, it determines the formal and informal assessment methods as well as the evaluation techniques to be exercised.
It drives learning paradigm, which is aimed at student learning, and focused on what the student does. Eventually, besides providing a grade to students, it fosters their commitment by supporting active learning. Therefore, the evaluation process should be authentic, fair, valid and reliable. How to evaluate? The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated.
Abstract: TPACK is a framework for the learning process in which educators combine Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge to deliver the learning experience. Therefore, TPACK can be defined as a complex interaction between the technology, pedagogy and content. TPACK expresses the overlap between these factors in a two-dimensional space, placing TPACK at the centre. Educators can place their teaching episode within this space and ask, if I place my delivery at this point is it the best point in the TPACK space? Secondly educators may ask how can the best point within the space be determined?
The construct “Attitudes toward the learning situation” includes attitudes toward any aspect of the situation in which the language is learned. According to Gardner, these attitudes could be directed toward the teacher, the course in general, one‘s classmates, the course material, extra-curricular activities associated with the course, among others. He further elucidates that these three factors can form the learner‘s attitude toward the learning situation depending on whether students’ experiences with these factors have been positive or negative. Gardner (2010) emphasizes, “It is these differences in attitudes toward the learning situation that are the focus of the model” (p. 89). In the AMTB, there is a subscale where the learners can evaluate their language teacher and their course, identified as TEACHER and CLASS.
Introduction Dynamic assessment which is the main focus of the present paper is a type of assessment defined as a process of active intervention of the teacher and constant assessment of the students’ responses to intervention. There is a continuous interaction between the teacher and the student containing non-stop instructions, leading questions, and responses (Haywood & Lidz, 2007). It is a sort of interactive assessment conducted by the developmental psychologist, Vygotsky which is mostly used in education. He believed in interactions which are cooperative and interpersonal. This approach to L2 assessment has first been introduced by Poehner and Lantolf (2005).