In other words, SLA researchers paid attention not to languages but to learners that is a subject to acquire a language. Shirahata (2006) cited Corder (1967) as proposing error analysis as a new approach for SLA research replaced by habit formation theory and the CAH. Error analysis is an approach to research a mechanism of language acquisition of learners by describing and analyzing systematically errors that are made in the process of L2 acquisition. He claimed that a developmental sequence of L2 learners can be clarified by knowing what errors they made. Through error analysis, it had been gradually revealed that the language use of L2 learners is not different only from that of a native speaker of the target language but also from a language system of their
First, it is a tool that requires the test-taker to perform in a given domain. Secondly, it is used to measures general language ability as well as specific competencies. Thirdly, it results in either a letter grade or a numerical score, sometimes accompanied with examiner’s feedback. Brown states if a test does not specify explicit measurement criteria then it cannot be defined as a test. In the field of linguistics, tests measure language learners’ ability to perform language-related tasks: reading, writing, listening or speaking.
The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis claims that errors in the second language can be predicted by identifying the differences between the first and the second language forms and patterns. Systematic L1 effects on L2 learning have been studied by assuming that L2 linguistic patterns can be largely predicted on the basis of L1 characteristics, which transfer to L2 either positively or negatively (Gass & Selinker, 2001). In terms of language transfer, Gass and Selinker (1992) stated that comparative studies between the first and the second languages are an important preliminary step to understanding language transfer. This comparison, they add, often guides us to understanding hypotheses related to language transfer phenomena. The other theoretical model for contrastive analysis was proposed by Krzeszowski (1976 & 1979) under the title "Contrastive Generative
For the purpose of this research, competency refers to the combination of speaking task that able to use correct grammar to orally communicate with people in English language. 11.5 Practice Practice is the actual application or use of an idea, method or belief with the theories relating to it. In this study, practice is a way influenced by teacher’s exposure to certain knowledge or theory and being used in
Doughty & Williams, 1998; Ellis, 2002; Norris & Ortega, 2002) and indicates that such studies have demonstrated evidence that FonF facilitates second language (L2) learners‟ acquisition of target morpho-syntactic forms or features. He further maintains that current concern has shifted to what constitutes the most effective pedagogical techniques in specific classroom settings, considering the choice of linguistic forms, the explicitness, and the mode of instruction. As Doughty (2001) argues “the factor 16 that distinguishes focus on form from other pedagogical approaches is the requirement that focus on form involves learners' briefly and perhaps simultaneously attending to form, meaning, and use during one cognitive event”(p .
Basic Concept of Paraphrasing Literally, paraphrasing is restating someone’s opinion in your own style. Several experts have different perspective in addressing paraphrasing in its basic definition. Kissner (2006) defined that “paraphrasing is, quite simply, restating ideas in different words. A reader (or listener) can choose to paraphrase one statement, a group of statements, or an entire passage”. In addition to prior statements, an article from Higher Score.ca stated that paraphrasing is a verb which describing a way to restate phrase or sentence with the same meaning, yet using different words.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background to the study Nowadays, English becomes one of the most important foreign language. To be good at English, it requires everyone to master four skills (reading, speaking, writing, and listening). Among these skills, listening plays an important role in communication as it is said that, of the total time spent on communicating, listening takes up 40-50%; speaking, 25-30%; reading, 11-16%; and writing, about 9% (Mendelsohn, 1994). And its role is also proven by many other researchers.
Actually, Inductive approach was often correlated with Direct Method and Natural Approach in English teaching, therefore, the rules of the language were supposedly acquired out of the experience of the understanding and repeating examples which had been systematically graded for difficulty and put into a clear context” (Thornburry, 2002, p.50). With this approach, the learners were not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but they were left to discover or induce rules from meaningful contexts provided by the teacher and their experience of using the language ( Richard& Platt,1997). The inductive approach related to subconscious learning processes similar to the concept of language acquisition. Learners learnt the language in the same way as children acquired their first or second
Assessing and evaluating English language proficiency of students http://www.rusnauka.com/35_OINBG_2012/Pedagogica/2_123063.doc.htm Language proficiency refers to a person’s ability to use a language for a variety of purposes, including speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Assessment and evaluation are essential components of teaching and learning English. Assessment is the process of gathering information on student learning and evaluation is the process of analyzing, reflecting upon, and summarizing assessment information, and making judgments and decisions based on the information collected. Without an effective evaluation program it is impossible to know whether students have learned, whether teaching has been effective, or how
They all concentrated on the components of the English language, namely words, structures, word-order, grammar etc. The communicative method almost ignored this function of the language and succeeded in imparting knowledge of language forms and rules. Communicative methods followed by: The method is function-based and task-centred While conveying the message is primary, accuracy is secondary Judicious uses of the mother tongue are translation is allowed to help student to perform the task Pair work and group work are frequently used in the classroom. The Bilingual Method: This method was first adopted by Dr.C.J. Dodson who also experimented it on students and achieved good results.