By the 16th century, The Ottoman Empire stretched all the way from Central Europe all the way into Arabia. To truly understand how The Ottoman Empire became so large and powerful, one needs to go back to the tail end of the 13th century. This
Ottoman Empire was undoubtedly one of the most remarkable empires that shape the history.It is founded by Osman Gazi in the small place in today 's west of modern Turkey, however, he and his successors made it become empire from a small beylik in three continents.Ottoman Empire was not a national state; it consisted of a bunch of mixture of various ethnicities and religions.To consider our contemporary world, it can be said that it is extremely hard that managing people from different roots, but ottomans somehow managed it gloriously until the 19th century.This paper investigates how ottomans deal with religious diversity in the empire. To start with, Islam’s role is incontrovertible on relations with non-Muslims.Dhimma is the non-Muslim citizens in an Islamic state.Dhimma relations were theologically, practically and imperially considered in the Ottoman empire.Economically, Ottoman rulers demand a special tax on land holdings called kharja or a poll tax from non muslims.Those taxes were rare, and it was not as the burden as Muslims pay which is called zakat, however, zakat was one to fourty of wealth as cizye and kharja were not. Unlike the popular thought, from first years to 1600s, in the ottoman land, there were largely Christians living more than Muslims because of the expansions to Balkans.Even in Anatolia, there were considerably Christians living along with their Muslim neighbors.As Benjamin Braude states, the subject Christian population and the
Subsequently, it had many enemies and allies. Ottomans were not considered part of Europe due to having a different religion and culture, even though the Ottomans flaunted that they accept and welcome Christianity. However, they associated in the European diplomacy. Christian countries such as France and England reached out to the Ottomans when dealing with their regional rivals. In July 1509, the Venetian Senate enlisted the Ottomans for military help against France.
Background a. The History of Dress Reform in the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire has a long history of implementing dress reforms as signifiers of different kinds of hierarchy. Most commonly, dress codes were used to enforce rank in social classes and the military. According to Quataert, his article “Clothing Laws in the Ottoman Empire, 1720-1829” states that the dress code law remained mostly the same from the 16th century until the early-18th century
Slavery became widespread in the Ottoman Empire after the conquering of Constantinople. As per the Ottoman Law, it was not legal to enslave a Muslim even though, it was legal to have slaves from other religions as it was an Islamic Empire. As the Ottoman Empire expanded children from other religions were abducted from their families at very young age and were fostered in Turkish families. These children were provided with knowledge about battles and were trained into effective soldiers. These slaves shouldn’t own properties nor marry and have children.
The Shi’ites were a minority and were often oppressed by the Ottomans. The Ottoman Empire began in the 1400’s. A decisive battle for the power of the Ottoman’s was conquering Constantinople in 1453. (Chary, 2013) The battle was led by Mehmed II. The army was strengthened and strategy planned before embarking on this battle.
He also argued that scholarly writing from America and Europe presented inaccurate, misleading and stereotyped cultural representations of the East. Said believed these biased perceptions hindered a true understanding of Middle Eastern and East Asian culture. The Westerner tried to cross the line between what they know and what they have never seen it before (University of Cambridge, n.d.). The distinction erupts the word ‘Orientalism’ and separates human into two groups. Today the effect of Orientalism can be identified in any society as it continues to shape attitudes, images, and knowledge.
Neo-Confucianism is the ethical and moral Chinese philosophy made to create a more rational form of Confucianism. Scholars of Neo-Confucianism removed any superstitious and mythical elements of Daoism and Buddhism. Although it was originated from the Tang Dynasty, it became more prominent in the Song Dynasty due to the rising of Buddhism power while Neo-Confucianism was getting rid of Buddhism elements. In the midst of their competition against Buddhism, Confucian scholars challenged Buddhism morals by making their own ideas of the human and natural world. It was attempt to remove any superstition from Buddhism and Daoism that had influenced Confucianism during the Han Dynasty.
Indo-European immigrants developed into a community and Rome was founded in 753 BC. Over the next century, the language was influenced by the Indo-European Etruscans. As the Roman Empire took power, classical Latin became the formal language of business and government and was used to unify the vast empire. The language spread by conquest from Mesopotamia, down to Northern Africa, over to Spain and Portugal and up to Great Britain. The Roman Empire reached its peak in 117 AD under Augustus Caesar and he took a special interest in developing the language.