Grammar translation method, also known as classical method, focuses on grammar rules and accuracy. It is one of the most popular traditional teaching methods. Grammar rules are explained theoretically and the first language is mostly used. Students learn grammar rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the second and the first language. It is very important to follow the rules and practice through the use of examples.
The first decade of the twenty-first century was marked by a renewed interest in and support of students’ own languages (Cook, Translation 37). This has been made possible by the changes that had taken place in the academic and political climate which surrounds language teaching and learning (Hall and Cook 278). Many theorists, linguists, and teachers agree on the importance of using translation in foreign language classes. Schaffner (1998) claims that the translation and related exercises could be beneficial to foreign language learning in the following ways: 1. To improve verbal agility.
The grammar translation method is not new. It was called the Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek. According to the teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method, a fundamental purpose of learning a language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom.
The Direct Method suggests that there should be lots of verbal communication, no translation, random and spontaneous use of the target language and there should be little time given to grammar and syntactic structures (Lestari, P. Rahmi, A. 2011) The Natural/Communicative Approach The beginning of 1960s saw yet another method which was originally the brain child of Tray Terrall and Stephen Krashen. This approach focused on three main areas; aural comprehension, early speech comprehension and speech activities. Students demonstrate comprehension in the form of speech, this is normally after the initial silent period. To enable the student to produce the target language it is of paramount importance that the Affective filter is low (Bull, W 1999) Language-body conversations ‘Total Physical Response (TPR) The foundation for language body conversations are based on a physical response or action upon the student.
As Duff (1994, 6) put it, "translation happens everywhere, all the time, so why not in the classroom?" The consequence of the violent reaction against the grammar-translation method in teaching languages between the teaching of translation as a language learning tool and as a professional activity as overemphasized to the point of preventing useful dialogue and exchange. This divide fetween the focus-on-language approach (translation as a tool) and the focus-on-communication approach (translation as an end in itself) becomes clear when comparing the rationale that underlines translation
ABSTRACT The aims of this article are to identify the types of method used by of student’s English department teaching English and technique of student’s English department to teach student of elementary school in course. The method of teaching English is very important because the method showed how effectively to teach student especially in English. Data was collected by questionnaires to several of student’s English department. The data was analyzed by using analysis the information. The result showed that the effectively their method to teaching English for elementary school student.
1.1 Background of the Study As a branch of applied linguistics, translation is an important tool of meaning transfer from one language to another for every aspect of life throughout the world. Major aspects of life such as religion, literature, science, and technology across the world have depended on translation role. In general, translation role in human civilization and advancement is without a doubt contributive. The contribution of translation to human knowledge is facilitated by the translator’s knowledge and expertise in at least two different languages. This notion makes the relation between translation and languages are inseparable.
Some of the oldest teaching methods are still used around the world. More methodological evolutions are expected including technological advances in pedagogical strategies. It also mentions the new roles of teachers as advocates for students in inumerous issues, ethical and social. The author points the similarities among the methods and its goal to teach students to communicate in the targeted language. Larsen-Freeman captured the guiding principles of how languages can be learned.
For thousands of years, the search for better teaching method to provide the best learning has been the goal of education. However, teaching methods can’t be used for different situation at a time. Flexibility is crucial in implementing teaching method in the class. As far as all teachers are different, the strategies they, and the way they use will depend on the context and situation of their class  in addition to their personal values and biases. Every teacher should be interested in the impact of teaching method on student’s learning.
It was also criticized by Newson (1988), Carreres (2006), Marsh (1987), and Owen (2003). They have presented some disadvantages of using translation as an instructional tool in language classrooms. From an opposite perspective, translation, misconceived and overused, could be seen as a victim of the grammar- translation method (GTM), rather than the source of its evils. The problem was not as such, but a teaching methodology that separated language from its communicative function. (Mogahed, 2011).