What is Discourse Analysis? Discourse analysis is basically a common term for a range of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. Discourse analysis is usually viewed as language sentence or the clause. It is the look of linguistics that's concerned about how we build up meaning in larger communicative, instead of grammatical units. It studies meaning in text, paragraph and conversation, rather than in single sentence.
IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical features. IGM is a powerful resource in the grammar of a language, by which the expression of ideational meanings such as processes, qualities and entities is stretched in important ways beyond their default encodings as clauses, adjectives and nouns or noun phrases. Halliday has offered a model displaying that certain forms (especially noun phrases) are more likely to be used as metaphorical forms than any other types of
Subordinating conjunctions signal that a clause is a subordinate clause and cannot stand alone. Some subordinating conjunctions that introduce an adverb clause are: Subordinating Conjunctions after before though whenever although if unless where As since until whereas because than when wherever You usually do not use a comma before an adverb clause that comes at the end of a sentence. When an adverb clause introduces a sentence, however, you do use a comma after the adverb clause. Most adverb clauses modify the verb in the main clause. They can be placed before or after the main clause.
With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
In Bachman’s model, language competence is subdivided into two strands: organizational and pragmatic competence for which there are also more subsections. Organizational competence includes organizational and textual competence and pragmatic competence comprises illocutionary and sociolinguistic competence. Strategic competence is subpart of language competence in Bachman’s model of communication used for achieving a communication act. Pragmatic competence is a noticeably known facet of communicative competence. Edwards and Csizér (2001) give a definition for pragmatic competence as the knowing of defined social, cultural, and discourse rules of situations set by a community desired to being abided in communication.
Communication cannot be separated from our lives. When people do communication, there are sentences which are uttered by the sender to the receiver, those sentences implied meaning that depends on who is the speaker, who is the audience, where does it take place, on what time, and how the context of situation where the sentences are uttered. Pragmatics is one of the linguistics studies that deal with this kind of thing. According to Levinson (1983:9) he stated that pragmatics is the study which are talking about relations between language and context that are symbolize in the structure of language. According to Yule (1996:3) pragmatics is the study of meaning that communicated by the speaker to the listener.
Cohesion as described by Halliday (1991) is one of the features that combine to make up the textual component in grammar. The textual components include the structural components (theme – rheme), information and focus structure (the given and new) and cohesion (Grammatical and Lexical). Halliday and Hasan (1976), refer to grammatical cohesion as including reference, substitution and ellipsis while the lexical refers to the different forms of lexical repetitions. Therefore, cohesion as Halliday and Hasan (1976) describe is a semantic relation that is realized through the lexico grammatical system. These elements as pointed out determine the texture of a text.
Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical
A semantic role is a relationship that a participant has with the main verb in the clause. While syntactic analysis focuses on sentences and all the function words in a sentence, the semantic analysis focuses primarily on meaning, i.e. on the proposition expressed in a sentence. A proposition is meaningful and it can be expressed either in different sentences or in parts of sentences. In order to do semantic analysis, we have to distinguish inflection from a proposition.
According to Martin Bygate’s Theory on speaking (1972:3), in order to achieve communicative goal through speaking, there are two aspects to be considered. The one is knowledge of the language and the other is the skill use in this language. It is not enough to possess the knowledge of the language, but a speaker of the language should be able to use in different situations. Jeremy Harmer’s View on Speaking: Harmer (2001) distinguishes two aspects, ‘language features’ and ‘mental/social processing’ with regard to elements of speaking which are necessary for fluent and oral production. The first aspect of the language features, necessary for the oral production involves connected speech, expressive devices, lexis, and grammar.