Reading is a receptive skill by which we receive information but the process of reading also needs speaking skills, so that we can pronounce the words correctly that we read . Reading is something that we can do by our own that broadens our vocabulary therefore helping in improving other three skills of speaking writing and listening. So
Phonology is very important in the role of an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher because having extended knowledge on the pronunciations of my native language can help me to better assist non-native speakers in theirs. It will allow me to better guide others in improving their speech skills which can positively impact their reading and writing skills. Teaching phonology can be difficult because the English language will not have the same number of phonemes as any given student’s L1. However, Pinker points out that this does not really matter, because in speech, we often do not hear the phonemes, rather we focus on the abstract units of language underlying the sounds that we hear (Pinker 191). He also goes into detail about how the sounds that we hear combine
Foreign language plays a very important role in one’s culture because when one is intended to learn any language he/she will learn the culture of that language. It means language and culture are interconnected. It is not possible to learn any language without knowing its culture. By learning any foreign language one should first know about target culture. By knowing its culture, it will help in learning foreign language.
In the language acquisition process, writing comes almost at the end. First we develop our listening skill, then we start speaking, after that reading comes along, and later in that process writing comes along. And there is only one explanation if we wanted to figure this process out: it takes time. Nonetheless, in Second Language Learners (SLLs) the writing process does not take longer, because there is an existent framework, which language teachers can use for that specific purpose. In other words, we will use the prior knowledge SLLs already have and use it to our favor and their favor as well, so that they can communicate their ideas in writing, too.
Reading books, taking part of a community (physical or virtual) and the daily usage of the language reprsents methods of learning that, in the end, may give a satisfying result. Living in a foreign state accelerates the process of memorizing the new terms beacause the learner have to use only the studied language. Also, the experience of learning a new language may give to an observant person the oportunity to understand the differences and similties between their native language and the foreign
It tends to develop the learners’ strategies as Nuttal (1962, p 23) claims that: “The intensive reading lesson is intended primarily to train students in reading strategies”. However, sometimes the learner may prefer to divide the text into parts and then read each part alone in order to comprehend it very well. In the same view, Palmer (1964) mentions that on intensive reading, the learner focuses on using the dictionary in which he has to analyze, compare and translate while reading texts. Therefore, the use of a dictionary helps the learner to progress in his language learning process. However, this may interrupt the learner’s reading speed.
Since English is an international language, being able to speak the language could open many opportunities and in this case, English language learners tend to forget the role of their native language and as well as their culture to their English language learning. Therefore, English language teachers need to give more attention in raising the students’ language and cultural awareness. Language awareness focuses on how learners are able to recognize the different varieties of languages and discern their distinct characteristics. Being aware of the language also means that the learners also give importance to their first language and are able to draw out significant commonalities from that of their native language and English. The goal of English language teachers, and the learners as well, is to connect the two languages (the learners ' L1 and L2).
The connection between sound and symbol is quite arbitrary. Language, being symbolic it can represent meaning beyond the immediate context, learners have to learn to relate the symbol to its meaning, that is why we encourage to use context to teach language and other way to explain the meaning by using translation or explanation in English. ( leads to the grammar-translation method of teaching) Language is not just only symbolic. It is also a complex system and productive. Wherefore the main aim of English teacher is to help language learners acquire this power of productivity, of generating original speech.
With whole language ,teachers are expected to provide a literacy rich environment for their students and to combine speaking , listening, reading, and writing. Whole language teachers emphasize the meaning of texts over the sounds of letters , and phonics instruction becomes just one component of the whole language classroom. Whole language is considered a " top down " approach where the reader constructs a personal meaning for a text based on using their prior knowledge to interpret the meaning of what they are reading .
2.2. Characteristics of self – study 2.2.1. Productive skill According to the website of Teaching English - British Council, productive skill means “The productive skills are speaking and writing, because learners doing these need to produce language. They are also known as active skills. They can be compared with the receptive skills of listening and reading.” Dita Golkovaa and Sarka Hubackovab (2014) confirm that “When one starts learning a foreign language, he surely and subconsciously is exposed to both categories of language skill.