Wholist style tends to respond to cognitive task by holistic strategy. They are used to perceiving material from the holistic perspective. There is a long span in reading comprehension. According to research, English majors in the vocabulary learning, guess words in context. The reading material provides them with information to help them guess the meaning.
There are various theories about language change given by Linguists and they have given different typologies regarding Language change. Language change can broadly divided into two types. i. External Language Change ii. Internal Language Change External language change generally occur because of borrowing whereas internal language change is caused by addition loss of sound and change of lexical items and the coinage of new words.
Middle English known as the age of changes .In short, these characteristics are the inflectional endings ,nouns ,verbs pronouns and ,what was the changes in it . The influences affect in Middle English that lead to that changes such as French and Latin . The three periods that Middle English passed on. Of course ,it presents the dialects in that period such as Kentish and Southern, and the influence of these dialects in the emergence of the standard English . When we study the history of English language we will know that English language passed in a lot of changes and development .When I read about English in middle ages , I notice that it is very different from English nowadays .
A third difficulty in pinning down syntactic change in present-day English is that a rather small number of alleged syntactic innovations are strongly stigmatized” (318). They introduce a typology of the ongoing changes mostly adapted from Barber (1964). Verb phrase changes include: a tendency to regularize irregular morphology (e.g. dreamt → dreamed); revival of the “mandative” subjunctive; elimination of shall as a future marker in the first person; development of new, auxiliary-like uses of certain lexical verbs; extension of the
Chapter Two Literature Review Introduction This chapter reviews the literature related to grammar errors in using simple past tense in English. The review aims to discover the literature related to some grammar problems that face students of English as a foreign language when learning the past simple tense. The review of the literature covers the most recent studies on English grammar problems for EFL learners related to my study. 2.1 Grammar and Writing Writing skill is the process of producing meaning using the graphic symbols of a given language arranged in many different ways to form the units of meaning staring from the morpheme to the discourse in order to construct a context for communication (Zamel, 1985). The ability to write and
2.4.1 Language Change Language has been changing over time and is an ongoing process; in other words, it is not a historical study. However, historical linguistics is partly concerned with language change. 2.4.2 Reasons for the Changes There are many reasons for the change in languages. Aitchison (2001) mentioned language changes through borrowing and adaption. It implies that when English comes across words of other languages similar in meaning, she may borrow and transform them, so language contract takes place and sister languages showing similarities are formed.
The English words that contain /r/ sounds in this study are ‘nature’, ‘memory’, ‘for’, ‘color’, and ‘flower’. The change could be represented as: / ʀ / : [ ʀ ] / ʀ / : [ ʳ ] Another allophonic involves the high front tense vowel phoneme. In some French words, the phoneme [i] undergoes a change in English words which has been more lax in the direction of [ɪ], such as in ‘difficult’ and ‘night’. As same as the previous allophonic, the change from [i] to [ɪ] has not caused any new meaning contrasts to develop. This pure allophonic change can be represented as: /i/ : [i] /i/ : [ɪ] 4.1.2.
According to Kramsch (1993), intercultural understanding specifies the ability of foreign language learners to understand values and principles of the English foreign culture regarding its variations. As a consequence, it is required to develop EFL students’ critical cultural belonging through an awareness process (Byram, 1997). In this way, English lessons should foster high order of critical thinking skills as: comparing, questioning, and problematizing their own cultural opinions to become more aware of the different world’s points of view involved in the interaction of culture when learning a foreign language. This development of critical thinking and belonging reflection provide EFL students with the opportunity to “construct their personal meanings at the boundaries between the native speakers’ meanings and their own everyday life” (Byram, 1997, p.
The researchers took down interesting or significant words/phrases the respondents said. As we continue to read the transcript, the researchers were able to comment on similarities and differences. • Connecting the Themes The researchers listed the themes that were gathered in a sheet of paper and looked for connections. The list that is made is in chronological order, based on the sequence the researchers came up in the collected data. This stage involves analytical and theoretical ordering, for the researchers are trying to see the connection of the themes to one another.
Quite a number of articles and scholarly writings have been published on the topic of shorthand usage with respect to its impact and effects on students and their use of the Standard English language. However, most of these works tend to focus on the creative styles of writing and how this inventive method has become an accepted form of