General Microbiology and Immunology PM204 Rickettsia Name: Khaled Sayed Khalil ID: 141199 Lab Group: B Characteristics: 1- They are naturally obligate intracellular parasites 2- They have the common feature of being spread by arthropod vectors (lice, fleas, mites and ticks) 3- They are rod-shaped or coccoid in nature 4- They range in size from 0.3 to 0.5 micrometer 5- They are mostly gram negative 6- They have bacterial cell wall 7- They have no flagella 8- They can reproduce only within animal cells via binary fission 9- They occur in single form, in pairs or as strands 10- Mostly found in the cytoplasm of the host cell Methods of Culturing: 1- Tissue Culture: The best and most consistent results were obtained with filtered
Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus (family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae), that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. People living in or near the forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure, possibly leading to subclinical infection. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa. Monkeypox has a clinical presentation very similar to that of ordinary forms of smallpox, including flulike symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and characteristic rash. Given this clinical spectrum, differential diagnosis to rule out smallpox is very important.
The Black Death and Ebola can be compared, based on scientific research. To start it off, Ebola is a virus, while the Black Death is a bacterial infection. Sure, the diseases are different but they are both contracted by animals. Ebola can be contracted by bats, monkeys, and apes
In early 1948, ZIKV was also isolated from Aedes Africanus mosquitos trapped in the same forest. Serological studies indicated that men can also be infecte, it is the first indication that it can be a threat to mankind. Transmission of Zika virus through artificially fed agent, the Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes to mice and monkey in a laboratory was reported as early as 1956. Ades Aegypti, unlike Aedes Africanus is widely present on lands where humans are present. It is considered as one of the most widely spread kind of mosquito.
Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and yellow fever) to human (Mitchell 1995, Shroyer 1986). All these viruses are very harmful to human and other organisms, they causes several diseases to humans. For instance in 2007 there was an outbreak of chikungunya in Italy, and other cases of dengue viruses were reported in south France and Croatia. The dengue virus is known to have four strains, therefore attacking one strain doesn’t immunize against contracting the other strains, so it become so difficult to treat the diseases caused by this virus. Chikungunya virus causes fever, swelling and redness of joints, severe rheumatic pains and in some cases death; according to research in various lab it has been shown that when a person is repeatedly infected with dengue viruses, this increases the risk of more severe sickness such as DenguhocyndromSS which induces shock as a result of a sharp drop in the volume of blood which might also lead to
Review of Literature ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ Zoonoses are the infections that are transmitted to humans from a vertebrate host. Earlier, they include all the diseases that were shared by humans and animals as introduced by Rudolf Virchow in 1880. Later on, the word zoonoses represented only those diseases which were proven or had direct circumstantial evidence of being transmitted by an animal. Zoonoses are known to occur throughout the world and also to transcend across the boundaries. This affects the global economy and health.
Toxocariasis, also known as the dog and cat roundworm is a zoonotic disease which means it is spread through animal to human without having to have direct contact. Toxocariasis is a part of the ascaridida family, the genus toxocara, the nematode class, the canis or cati species, and the phylum nemathelminths. The first incidence of the disease toxocariasis was reported in 1824 the 18th century technology did not allow for such research in toxocariasis. In 1908 an English scientist discovered that seventeen out of twenty-four dogs were infected with the parasite. Toxocariasis is a worldwide disease, but most cases are found in the United States, Western Europe and Australia.
ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common worldwide parasitic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is commonly transmitted to humans by accidental ingestion of oocysts voided in cat feces or tissue cyst in meat. Congenital transmission may occurs when an uninfected mother acquires primary infection during pregnancy . The acquired infection is usually asymptomatic, while congenital one may lead to abortion, stillbirth or severe abnormalities in the newborn. A total of 190 pregnant women were interviewed with questionnaire about known risk factors (age, residence and occupational status, raw vegetables and fruits intake, source of drinking of water, milk intake, frequency of meat intake,
Mosquitoes that spread Zika are active daytime biters, but they can also bite at night. Therefore, the mosquito net, a kind of cover sheet over the bed to keep mosquitos away at night, is not an efficient blocking method. Ironically, mosquitoes themselves become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then further spread the virus to people through bites. Scientists have discovered other ways of transmission for Zika virus such as sexual intercourse, including oral activities, from a person who has Zika virus to his partner even if the infected person does not show symptoms at the time.