The article hints that depression is one of the most compelling diseases challenging human life in the contemporary world. Its prevalence rate is shooting yearly among the young populations. Individuals who encounter depression during their childhood and early adolescence are likely to have persistent depressive disorder during their adulthood. Childhood depression is an issue of significant concern since it challenges the wellbeing and development of children and it may project severe consequences in adolescence and adulthood. Multiple factors are attributed to depression in children and these include interpersonal relations, self-esteem or anxiety.
Because of aging population, it is expected that the number of seniors suffering from depression will increase. Treatment for depression is important within older adults because depression is associated with functional decline that can require increased care, family stress, a higher likelihood of comorbid physical illnesses, and premature death due to suicides. Currently, depression in the elderly can be treated either by pharmacotherapy (SSRIs and antidepressants) and psychotherapy. However, it is necessary first to identify and diagnose depression which can be challenging in this age group owing to communication difficulties caused by hearing or cognitive impairment and other physical symptoms. Because frail seniors are unable to self-report depressive symptoms due to the stigma associated with mental illness, cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective intervention which provides a new way of perceiving and thinking about judgements, improves quality of life by behavioural
This transition is well studied in developmental psychology (Levinson 1978, Sheehy, 1977). The researchers mentioned that it is a period of preliminary orientation in adult life and social roles, occupational choices, leaving the family (Shihy 1977, Levinson 1978), changes in value system, the formation of worldview, searches for the meaning of life (Kon 1989) etc. Our research showed that the main symptoms of this crisis are anxiety because of entering the adult world, feelings of uncertainty about future and grief. We believe that during this period the parental need starts to actualize at the subconscious level. Another characteristic of this transitional age is an acute need for independence, which very often provokes conflicts with parents.
(staff, 2010) Research suggests that adults in later middle adulthood are exposed to fewer stressors than adults in earlier adulthood. Though adults in later adulthood are more reactive to daily stressors the adults in earlier adulthood. Given that adults in later adulthood have more health difficulties and losses of friends or family, why don't they report more problems? The answer seems to be in how they view problems. Adults in later middle adulthood are less likely to perceive their problems as stressful.
Ethnic identity begins to develop in an individual when that individual is of early adolescence. There are many models that illustrate this process, some of which are described within this paper. Many theorists have chosen to make this topic their topic of study, including Erik Erikson, James Marcia, and Jean Phinney. Each of these theorists used the models of previous theorists to construct their models, so although they all share several similarities, they are each different in their own way. The transition between elementary school to middle school can affect the way that adolescents mature mentally and cause them to think more about their identity and where they fit in the world.
In studying adolescent development, adolescence can be defined biologically, as the physical transition marked by the onset of puberty and the termination of physical growth; cognitively, as changes in the ability to think abstractly and multi-dimensionally; or socially, as a period of preparation for adult roles. Cognitive advances encompass both increases in knowledge and in the ability to think abstractly and to reason more effectively. Developmental psychologists might focus on changes in relations with parents and peers as a function of school structure and pubertal status.Therefore, as adolescents grow in maturity they also learn how to regulate their emotions which has positive and negative effects on relationship with family and friends. (a textbook of child psychology virender kumar 2012). As adolescents acquire greater conceptual complexity and participated in more varied social relationship, they begin to be able to assume an adult perspective in problem solving and decision making.
Concrete studies have displayed that “not only do children contend with puberty at younger ages” (Mendle 3). But more so “disparities between social and biological maturity are believed to facilitate risk-taking behaviors that contribute to adolescent delinquency, mortality, and injury” (Mendle 3). Hence the bodies of our youth and their social worlds tend to change “and evolve throughout puberty and adolescence” (Mendle 3). In terms of health and well-being we must understand the complex variation in puberty. The domains such as social and biological aspects help us to recognize that “these domains are, to some degree, intertwined—particularly in data collected at a single point” (Mendle
(2008).Since the early 1980s, audiologists have become increasingly aware of the potential effect of even mild degrees of hearing loss on the psychoeducational and psychosocial outcomes of children. This review describes some of the key research findings during the past several decades that have led us to our current thinking about unilateral and mild bilateral hearing loss in children. The first section addresses unilateral hearing loss. This is followed by a review of the literature on mild bilateral hearing loss. Specifically, the issues addressed include the significance of permanent mild degrees of hearing loss on children's psychoeducational and psychosocial development and the speech, language, and auditory characteristics of children with mild degrees of hearing loss.
These can all be moderate at first but then progressively become worse. Less common symptoms are fatigue, cardiac symptoms, hemiplegia, and eye pain. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can cause iridocyclitis, when this happens it can be the cause of the symptoms such as eye pain, red eyes, and vision changes (Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, 2013). Knowing the symptoms that are associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, it’s is now important to understand what tests that are imperative to diagnose
These alterations influence per-ceived abilities, such as increasing difficulty of focusing on nearby objects or distin-guishing them in poorly lit environments or even less ability to perform multitasking . Consequently, diverse barriers tend to hamper the daily lives of older people, in particular about decision-making, problem-solving or day-to-day planning. On the other hand, ageing is associated with many chronic diseases that influence the quality of older adults. All these circumstances have implications for