Late 19th Century Liberalism Analysis

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1. What were the basic tenets of late-nineteenth century liberalism? How did Latin American elites adopt these tenets and how were they different from Europe? a. Basic tenets of late-nineteenth century liberalism included constitutions, representative governments, presidents elected by the people with "legally defined" and limited powers, and political participation and opposition stemming from an idea of citizenship (361, Negretto and Aguilar-Rivera). Latin American elites adopted these tenets through the Constitutions they wrote when nation-building after the wars of independence and during or after the various wars of independence (particularly the Caudillismo period). However, Latin American elites dearly valued national unity and low levels of internal conflict in the pursuit of power. Essentially, they wished to abolish the caudillo method of gaining control of a nation through wars, insurrection, and murder while also creating a united, cohesive state for the purposes of trade. In this method, they differed from Europe in creating powerful executives (either de jure or de facto) to successfully unite the nation and quell internal conflict. The concept of emergency powers in specific is a more uniquely Latin…show more content…
The intentions of liberal reformers were threefold: economic prosperity (especially in regards to enriching themselves), political consolidation of power in the hands of liberal elites (vis-à-vis conservatives), and the establishment of a strong, stable, united state generally under some form of federalism (this, however, soon gave way to centralized governments with powerful executives as it became clear that a federalist state could not accurately function in Latin American society, especially so recently after the Caudillismo period.) In Argentina and Mexico, they manifested themselves through constitutions build with checks and balances, strong legislatures, and a system of federalism with a supreme federal government but still substantial
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