Theoretical Background This study is anchored on Folkman & Richard Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal approach. Cognitive appraisal means to focus more on psychological stress that develop to our mind and body in a build of cognitive psychology (Ciccarelli & White, 2012). Richard Lazarus defined stress as a two-way process; it involves the production of stressors by the environment, and the psychophysiological response of an individual subjected to these stressors. Every individual has its own way of perceiving stressful events base on the cognitive appraisal. When a person appraise the stressful events as a threat or a harmful feelings towards a situation, negative emotions may arise, that inhibit the person’s ability to cope with the treat that
Secondly, one mechanism that could be used as a basis to describe/evaluate workplace stress would be the contemporary interactional stress theory of JDC. A contemporary theory (CT) of stress allows for an interaction to take place between the
Stress in workplace obviously important to employees but management is also concerned about stress in workplace for several reasons. Stress in workplace reduces productivity, increase management pressure, and makes people ill in much way; evidence of which is still increasing. Workplace stress effects the performance of the brain, including functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and
M* finds that job stressors were significantlyrelated to employees’ psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at thejob, and absenteeism. Type A behavior was found to be an important moderator of thestress outcome relationship. This study examines the relationship among job stressors (role ambiguity, role overload, role conflict, resource inadequacy, skill underutilization), Type A behaviour pattern and employees' psychosomatic complaints, life and job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job, and absenteeism among middle managers (N = 227) and among blue-collar workers (N = 285). Job stressors were found to be significantly related to all outcome variables, except life satisfaction. Type Abehaviour was associated with a number of job stressors and outcome variables.In addition, Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress-outcome relationships.
It is mean, stress will occur when there is any adjustment you have to make in your life such as work overload or a nagging boss, computer problems or time deadlines, downsizing and mergers, accelerating rates of change and world event. Stress is cause by stressor. Stressor is a potentially harmful or threatening external event or situation. There are two type of stressor:- 1) Eustress 2) Distress Eustress is the good stress that motivates you to continue working. Stress can be a motivator and provide incentive to get the job done.
According to this theory, stress may have positive or negative implications on the member in an organization.it depends on how the demands which evoke stress affect the personal growth development and to perform well. Demands may be sometime harmful or they can be appraised as challenge or opportunity. (Lazarus and Folkman 1984) This theory reconcile some positive and negative potentials. We can define stress as a process set into motion whenever demands in the society or environment increases beyond individual’s resources. The demands are then consider as irrelevant or as an opportunity for personal growth, development and well- being.
Once a problem has been identified, specialists start identification and development of solutions, by training for employers and employees, managers, provision of information, timeframe for review, in order to develop awareness of stress and its management, and to educate employers about how they can limit organizational stress. (Caracota Dimitriu, 2009) Stress might react differently on individuals, some might need stress to better perform or the contrary and individuals can be completely panicked and loose abilities when in a stress state. For my part, I can perform much more when am under stress
The effects of stress can be either positive or negative. What is perceived as positive stress by one person may be perceived as negative stress by another, since everyone perceives situations differently. Stress is becoming a major illness in the work environment, and it can be debilitate employees and can be costly to employers. Managers need to identify those suffering from negative stress and implement programs as a defense against stress. These programs may reduce the impact stress has on employee’s work performance.
He says that emotions come as a result of environment of organization which compel an employee to go in a certain mood (either positive or negative) and behave accordingly. The observeable behavior, perception and a reaction or response in certain thing or environment is called attitude. Such reaction establishes certain need and it is met by responses of employee his/herself and organizational. Most often, negative responses are more harmful than positive responses so that changes can be done. Environment is prominent factor that influences in the emotions, moods and attitudes and promotes stimulus and responses, which allow huge amount of flexibility in adjusting environmental differences.