Polyclonal B-cell hyperreactivity with abnormalities of autoregulation have been reported, the histopathologic substrate of Sjogren’s syndrome is characterized by presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in glandular and extraglandular sites. Microscopic examinations of enlarged parotid or submandibular glands reveal benign lymphoepithelial lesion, characterized by epimyoepithelial islands in a lymphocytic infiltrate with replacement of acini. In the minor salivary glands the characteristic feature is focal lymphocytic
The sickle cell is an autosomal recessive means that if both parents has a form of a defective gene it can be pass to their offspring and there is a chance to be affected but if only one parent has a defective form of a gene the child will only a carrier. The signs and symptoms are anemia the red blood cells are not enough or dying, episodes of pain means that red blood vessels are blocked by shape-sickle cell it result to a pain in chest, abdomen, and joints or in bones and the sickle cell can damage the organ to fight other infections ,so it vulnerable to infections. The diagnosis is used blood testing, it detects the defective form of hemoglobin. The treatment is through Bone marrow or stem cell
Fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) is affected to show the episode. The feeling of stabbing pain in upper jaw and teeth and slowly radiating towards nose is due to defective function of the maxillary nerve. The nerve is the second branch of trigeminal nerve. The initiating or trigger point is the loss of sensory or motor function of the second branch of fifth cranial nerve (Richard & Sanders, 2010) The following are the cranial nerves that involve in regulation of functions of eye o Optic nerve: The sensory nerve is a second cranial nerve help in whole process of sight and vision. The nerve involves in the transmission of electrical signals from the various parts of eye to CNS (brain), then the brain send an appropriate response in the form of an image to see (the objects what we see around us).
3, 4, 6b, 8, 10 Clinical signs include muscle weakness and atrophy, exercise intolerance and a paddling gait. Dysphagia and regurgitation are frequently seen with degeneration of the esophageal and pharyngeal muscles. Creatine kinase levels are elevated and there are bizarre discharges on EMG. The breed has also been listed as being predisposed for umbilical hernias. 4, 8 NEUROLOGIC Epilepsy 4, 8 and deafness 8 have been listed as occurring in the breed.
Diabetic eye disease includes diabetic retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma. What is Diabetic Retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes out of tripathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels) causes damage to the cells at the back of the eye, known anatomically as, the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of loss of vision.
Reverse palmaris longus was first described by Captain John T. Morrison in 1916 as an incidental post amputation finding .It may cause compartment syndrome in the Carpal tunnel and Guyons canal. The patient will present with pain and edema in the wrist region. This is an occupational hazard in people whose work involves repetitive wrist movements as it will result in hypertrophy and cause compression of median nerve and or ulnar nerve. This makes the modern day computer professional particularly vulnerable. Symptomatic patients presenting with a palpable volar swelling should be examined for variations in the palmaris longus.
Myelin damage disrupts communication between your brain and the rest of your body. Ultimately, the nerves themselves may deteriorate a process that's currently irreversible.” – (Unkown. (2014). Multiple Sclerosis. Available: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/basics/definition/con-20026689.
Kallmann’s Syndrome : A Rare Case Report ABSTRACT : Background : KALLMANN SYNDRME (kal S), a Developmental Hypothalamic Dysfunction, resulting from defective Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) synthesis and is seen in association with Hyposmia or Anosmia ( a deficiency of sense of smell ) due to olfactory bulb/tract hypoplasia or agenesis. Clinical Features of the syndrome are attributed to GnRH deficiency as well as underlying genetic defect. It is not unusual for congenital causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism , such as kallmann’s syndrome, to be diagnosed in young adults. The diagnosis of the syndrome is reliant on characteristic clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging revealing olfactory bulb/tract hypoplasia/agenesis.
Hip dysplasia (HD) is associated with an abnormal joint structure and laxity of the muscles, connective tissue (CT) and ligament that normally support the joint. As this joint laxity develops, the articular surfaces on the femur and in the acetabulum loose contact with each other. This separation within the joint is known as a subluxation and will cause drastic changes in both the size and shape of the articular surfaces. All dysplastic dogs are born with normal hips but the soft tissues surrounding the joint develops abnormally due to the dogs genetic make-up, and possibly other environmental factors, which is what causes the subluxation (1). The subluxation and remodeling of the hip is what leads to the symptoms that are associated with HD.
INTRODUCTION Research Question To what extent is genetics responsible for causing Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Foreword Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease wherein the immune system mistakes healthy cells as intruders and attacks them. These attacks could happen in various parts of the body. It is most commonly known as the ‘great imitator ‘as its signs and symptoms imitate that of other diseases. Lupus differs from each patient and symptoms oscillate from time to time.
This can cause depression. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a disorder that is both mentally and physically challenging. Duchenne Syndrome is caused by the mutation of a gene on the X-chromosome. A muscle protein, dystrophin, is affected by this mutation. The damaged gene cannot make enough dystrophin to work right, so it will result in DMD.
Morrie Schwartz was diagnosed by a frightening sickness known as ALS. ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) is an exceptionally uncommon sickness inside of your sensory system that debilitates muscles and affects the physical capacity. Morrie Schwartz had been determined to have ALS and his previous understudy, Mitch, revived their kinship through his condition. The illness is known as an motor neuron infection that is portrayed by the steady degeneration and demise of motor neurons. Motor neurons are nerve cells a portion of a pathway that send driving forces to the cerebrum and the spinal rope.
The correlations between phenotype and genotype have not yet proven, but most mutations of the ABCA12 genes are though to be core that leads to HI disease. Mutations of the ABCA12 genes are thought to lead to major loss of this protein functions because it effect the folding of the beta and alpha sheets in order to become functional proteins that is essential for lipids transport across the cell membrane to the epidermis layer of the skin. One other disease that is also associated with mutations of ABCA12 gene is lamellar ichthyosis (LI). This disease is the less severe version of HI, due to lower incidents of mutation in the affected genes. The mutated ABCA12 in LI can still make functional proteins that somewhat help with lipids binding across the outer skin layer.
This syndrome is caused by damage inflicted to the anterior aspect of the spinal cord or as a result of decreased vascular supply. Brown-Sequard syndrome occurs in the presence of damage to one side of the spinal cord more so than the other, resulting in ipsilateral loss of motor function and sensory loss too. Posterior cord syndrome is very rare and the cause is most commonly found with chronic myelopathy resulting in loss of vibration and proprioception below the level of
As mentioned previously, Muscle dystrophy is an inherited disease that causes weakness and loss of muscle mass. With this, the mutated genes affect the productions of the protein that is needed in order to form healthy tissue in one’s body. While there are many different forms of this disease, this is due to a genetic mutation. This can occur within the emerging embryo. The main symptom of this is the advanced weakness of the muscles.