Lead Acid Battery Report

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Basic working principle
Materials used for Lead Acid Storage Battery Cells
The main active materials required to construct a lead-acid battery are
1. Lead peroxide (PbO2).
2. Sponge lead (Pb) and
3. Dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Lead Peroxide (PbO2)
The positive plate is made of lead peroxide. This is dark brown, hard and brittle substance.
Sponge Lead (Pb)
The negative plate is made of pure lead in soft sponge condition.
Dilute Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Dilute sulfuric acid used for lead acid battery has ration of water : acid = 3:1.
The lead acid storage battery is formed by dipping lead peroxide plate and sponge lead plate in dilute sulfuric acid. A load is connected externally
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As the radical SO4 cannot exist alone it will attack Pb and will form PbSO4.
As H+ ions take electrons from PbO2 plate and SO4 − − ions give electrons to Pb plate, there would be an inequality of electrons between these two plates. Hence there would be a flow of current through the external load between these plates for balancing this inequality of electrons. This process is called discharging lead acid battery .
The lead sulfate (PbSO4) is whitish in color. During
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The bipolar lead acid batteries in comparison to conventional lead acid batteries deliver higher power levels. They offer increased energy density while quadrupling power density in comparison to conventional lead acid batteries.
This is made possible due to the fact that they have more cells spaced closer together. The bipolar plates that connect adjacent cells have a shorter current path and a larger surface area than the connections in conventional cells. This construction reduces the power loss that is normally caused due to the internal resistance of the cells.
A number of advantages are offered by bipolar lead acid batteries as an energy storage device that it makes this technology suitable for use in battery electric / hybrid vehicles. Some of them are:
• In a bipolar construction, much less material weight is needed for electronic conduction of the current in the grid and in the cell connections in comparison to conventional lead acid batteries.
• A well established supply chain and manufacturing methodologies for lead acid batteries make it all the more reliable and provide an attractive cost

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