According to Bass and his colleagues ‘adaptive leaders work more effectively in rapidly changing environments by helping to make sense of the challenges confronted by both leaders and followers and then appropriately responding to those challenges. Adaptive leaders work with their employee to generate creative solutions to complex problems, while also developing them to handle a broader range of leadership responsibilities. Therefore the leadership style may have an impact on employee job satisfaction. The effects of leadership on employee job satisfaction also important because leadership is viewed by some researcher as on of the key driving forces for improving a firm performance. Effective leadership is seen as major source of management to sustained competitive advantage for organization performance improvement according to (Avolio, 1999; lado, Boyd and Wright, 1992; Rowe, 2001).
It can lead to complete growth of an organisation if employees are fully motivated. Leadership behaviour can bring inspirational motivation that comprises the formation and presentation of an attractive vision and future of an organisation and the exhibition of confidence and passion. Leaders sacrifice for the benefit of the team, setting a personal good example and demonstrating high ethical principles can greatly add value to an organisation. Furthermore, leader’s behaviour that gives support, training and problems awareness to employees can make an organisation stands out from its
A leader may achieve this with captivation, emotional intelligence, and through the empowerment of followers (Hutchison & Jackson, 2013). Moreover, transformational leadership research focuses on individual traits and leader-follower dyad characteristics that influence organizational change. Many research studies explore this theory and its impact on the nursing profession (Fischer, 2016). Largely, transformational leadership in the nursing context is directly and indirectly associated with staff satisfaction, decreased turnover, and improved patient outcomes (Fischer, 2016; Bormann, & Abrahamson, 2014; Merrill, 2015). It is possible to connect the benefits of transformational leadership styles to the leader 's ability to empower followers, simultaneously increasing their commitment to the organization (Fischer, 2016; Bormann, & Abrahamson, 2014; Merrill, 2015).
Another work on Leader Member Exchange theory was done by Hui Wang in 2005 developed a model in the paper. They showed that leader-member exchange (LMX) is mediated between supposed and expected transformational leadership attitudes and subordinates’ performance and organizational citizenship behaviours. Hui Wang and fellows found out that a successful leader always presents a dynamic transformational behaviour to his subordinates and followers. Leaders encourage followers to participate and chip in their task by actively participating to exchange their ideas and thoughts to make a socially bonded relationship. Another study was conducted on relationship of principals and student counsellors in 2009.
Transformational leadership explains different behaviors which the researchers measured with survey method and the recent version of (Bass, 1996; Bass & Avolio, 1990) presents the same concepts as: (1) regular feedback, (2) encouragement to team members, (3) calculated risk, (4) vision for future, and (5) reward to colleagues. Some studies prove that positive reward behavior of TL is more effective instead of the transactional behavior. There are several survey studies which prove that transformational leadership is positively related to team leadership and professional engagement (Bass, 1998). Another way to define leader effect on groups is in terms of the short-term influences of a leader’s behavior on arbitrating variables related to task presentation, such as stimulation of reasons, improved self-potency or
They studied the relationship with two leadership styles: transformational and transactional. They studied the impact on academic staff of a community college in Malaysia. Though earlier studies had established a relationship between leadership styles and turnover yet their study showed contradictory results. They felt that the result differed due to the nature of work. Since academicians in higher education work mostly by themselves to impart knowledge to their students, there was little impact of leadership styles on their turnover intentions.
It is necessary that representatives of the creative industries create an environment that will activate our senses and emotions, and encourage lateral thinking. Any initiative for innovation (ideas, products, services, etc.) Has little chance of success if it is not provided the correct communication innovation. Innovative communication should include innovation process and to promote the diffusion of innovation (the study of how fast, how and why some innovations spread through the population). The goal of innovation is to promote the integration of communication of all participants through the various translations of specific 'language', strengthen the role of constructive dialogue, building bridges of communication between different disciplines, resulting in the creation of conditions for activating the space for innovation.
Transactional and Transformational Leadership Both concepts of the theory are built upon the reciprocity relationship between leader and follower. In contrast to the transactional leader who practices depending reinforcement of followers, the transformational leader inspires, intellectually stimulates, and individually considerate their team (Bass, 1999). At the core of transformational approach it is emphasize the both on leader ability to motivate and empower follower as well as in the moral dimension of leadership – it is about winning the mind and the heart (Bolden et al., 2011, p.31). The commitment building of this type of leadership is not only from the precise goal setting and evaluation but also through caring and inspiring the team.
Moreover, transformational leaders show to their subordinates how task should be accomplished with determination. Typically, they accept almost everything including risk to achieve certain goal and for innovation. However, this is not always good all the time. The entire organization and its operation will suffer if they always do immoral and unethical behaviors. Furthermore, generating ideas without merit is one disadvantage of transformational leadership.
Engaged employees who are motivated, talented and hard-working performances are what managers expect from employees. These employees produce more effectively and efficient than those employees who are unmotivated. The role of the company’s leadership style is also an important internal factor. This can impact the organizational culture;