Leadership ‘Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation’ Hersey and Blanchard (1988). For my research on leadership I will be focusing on; - Expectancy Theory - The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership - Locus of Control Framework Expectancy Theory: I will begin with expectancy theory as this displays the sequence of key factors which motivate individuals in the workplace. To be an effective leader I must be an effective motivator. To an extent this theory also forms the basis for the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. Expectancy Theory was first proposed in ‘Work and Motivation’ Vroom (1964).
In this co-existense, transformational leadership posits that leaders and their followers form and build interpersonal relationships where the former become change agents and the latter as leaders. This relationship ultimately leads to the empowerment of the followers where their potentials are developed to the fullest eventually meeting their needs. All the members of the organization experience a change in mind and heart and commitment is built on organizational objectives. This study will look into ways on how academic middle managers empower their faculty members to prepare them to work towards the attainment of goals as well as towards the attainment of their needs through the different leadership roles performed by the former. On the other hand, transactional leadership focuses on motivating members towards organizational vision of which rewards are expected in the attainment thereof.
The concept of charisma was redefined into a sub-dimension of transformational leadership. This theory had two extremes, transformational and transactional leadership. Transactional leadership now involves changing behaviors through contractual, negotiated exchanges between a leader and a follower, exchanging one thing for another. The idea of Management By Objectives and linking bonus payments to target achievement is still linked to this concept. The transformational leadership involves motivation that derives from the followers’ values, which are being influenced by the leader to become more congruent with those of the
This pursuit has resulted in important leadership theories - from trait theory, through the behavioral and contingency theory, to the contemporary approaches to leadership such as transactional, transformational, interactive, and servant leadership. This assignment intends to establish the role of transformational leadership style in motivating individuals in an organization to be committed to their
The first job of the leader is to monitor the internal and external factors and the next step is to take actions, which can be corrective or preventive. 188.8.131.52 Path-goal theory. This theory is built on the assumption that the most important function of a leader is to make sure that the followers stay motivated (House, 1996). According to this theory, the best way to motivate the followers is by defining goals, clarifying the path, removing obstacles, and providing support. The main components of this theory are the leader behavior, the personality traits of the group members, and the task characteristics (House, 1996).
There are four main core theories in Leadership; they are “Trait” theory, ‘Transformational’ theory, ‘Situational’ theory and ‘Behavioral’ theory. “Trait” theory refers to people who born with certain specific characteristics; Surgency, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Adjustment and intellectance. People born with these characteristics can become a leader easier because they already have what basic requirements of a leader. The trait theory focused on analyzing mental, physical and social characteristic to gain more understanding of what is the characteristic or the combination of characteristics that are common among leaders. Transformational leadership refers to the leader moving the follower beyond immediate self-interests through idealized influence (charisma), inspiration, intellectual stimulation, or individualized consideration.
Literature review. There are different leadership theories, models and styles developed throughout the history. Cable & Judge (2003), acknowledged that, the theories, models and styles that leaders use to get things done in an organization have important consequences for the culture of the organization and how people in the organization relate to one another. It also matters the motivation and the development of the workforce. Leadership Theories.
Theoritical Framework The researcher adapted the theory of Burns where leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of raising one another to higher levels motivation. This raised the bar by appealing to higher ideals and values of followers. This encourages people to collaborate and work as a team. Below is the illustration of transformational leadership theory that explains that if leaders have these characteristics or behaviour and able to convince the people in the organization, success would be possible. With these perspectives, a leader must possess necessary traits or character to influence others to run the organization or the unit effectively.
In the work situation it has become increasingly clear that leaders can no longer rely solely on the use of their position in the hierarchical structure as a means of exercising the functions of leadership. In order to get the best results from subordinates the leader must also have regard for the need to encourage high morale, a spirit of involvement and co-operation, and a willingness to work. This gives rise to consideration of the style of leadership and provides another heading under which to analyze leadership behavior. Leadership style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which the leader typically behaves towards members of the group. The attention given to leadership style is based on the assumption that subordinates are more likely to work effectively for leaders who adopt a certain style of leadership than for leaders who adopt alternative styles.
Unlike traits, behavioural leadership is potentially influenced not only by the leaders’ nature but also by the situations those leaders are confronted with. (Vroom and Jago, 2007:3). The contingency school of leadership was concerned with the suitability of different leadership styles in different leadership situations by matching the personal characteristics of a leader to the leadership situation (Müller et al, 2009:438). The contingency model of leadership posits that the effectiveness of leadership is dependent upon the interaction of leadership style and situational favourableness that is the degree to which the situation provides the leader with the potential power and influence over the followers’ behaviours (Liu, Lepak, Takeuchi, Sims, 2004:128). The visionary/charismatic school of leadership focuses on two types of leadership: (1) Transformational leadership style (people-orientated), emphasizes follower rewards contingent on meeting specified performance targets.