Expectancy theory proposes that people engage in particular behaviors based on the probability that the behavior will be followed by a certain outcome and the value of that outcome (Vroom, 1964).Transactional leadership stems from more traditional views of workers and organizations, and it involves the position power of the leader to use followers for task completion (Burns, 1978).Leadership, then, is not only the process and activity of the person who is in a leadership position, but also encompasses the environment this leader creates and how this leader responds to the surroundings, as well as the particular skills and activities of the people being led. Transformational leadership, however, searches for ways to help motivate followers by satisfying higher-order needs and more fully engaging them in the process of the work (Bass, 1985).Goal setting theory takes a somewhat different approach, suggesting that people are motivated to achieve goals, and their intentions drive their behavior (Locke, 1968).Additional motivation theories include expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting, and
In other words, both the leaders and the organization lack a stable core – whereupon authenticity will be impossible. This argument is supported by a study conducted by Nyberg and Sveningsson (2014), who reported that leaders experience a tension between their authenticity and the expectations of other members in the organization. Due to that, the leaders reported to have restrained their authenticity in order to be perceived as good leaders. According to the authors, it is thus misleading to examine leadership disconnected from the context in which it takes
2. Leadership process is defined as the steps, activities and the processes that develop according to a situation, where the leader identifies the needs of the group, establishes goals, develops activities for the group to attain goals, and establishes the norms in order to set acceptable behaviors and outcomes agreeable within the group dependent to the situation (Pierce & Newstrom, 2011). The leadership process allows for the leader to identify the situation and direct
Looking into the theoretical review, there is no universal accepted definition of integrity, as there too many definitions of integrity, little theory and too few vigorous empirical studies. However, in this particular study, integrity of leaders is anchored on moral or ethical behaviors of leaders. When we speak of ethical or moral, it encompasses actions which are in accordance with socially accepted behavior (Pillay, 2014). Ethical appropriateness with regard to leaders-behavior is often evaluated in terms of abstract and highly idealistic concepts about individuals perception of how leaders should behave ( Maesschalck, as cited in Pillay, 2014). In dealing with conflict situations, ethical behavior should be behind the choices that we make.
Task 4.1: Plan the development of leadership skills for a specific requirement. Leadership expertises are those expertises which possess in leader to enable his influence to motivate and inspire the group to achieve the targets. Leadership skills are demonstrate honesty, enthusiasm, evaluate complex situation, result driven, problem solving and remove hindrance. Leadership skill encompasses attitudes and behaviour which belong to humanity. Leadership is mostly concern behaviour and management mostly concern processes.
Unlike traits, behavioural leadership is potentially influenced not only by the leaders’ nature but also by the situations those leaders are confronted with. (Vroom and Jago, 2007:3). The contingency school of leadership was concerned with the suitability of different leadership styles in different leadership situations by matching the personal characteristics of a leader to the leadership situation (Müller et al, 2009:438). The contingency model of leadership posits that the effectiveness of leadership is dependent upon the interaction of leadership style and situational favourableness that is the degree to which the situation provides the leader with the potential power and influence over the followers’ behaviours (Liu, Lepak, Takeuchi, Sims, 2004:128). The visionary/charismatic school of leadership focuses on two types of leadership: (1) Transformational leadership style (people-orientated), emphasizes follower rewards contingent on meeting specified performance targets.
The bottom-line reality is that we all need to know what is expected in a specific role – if that is lacking, uncertainty and frustration, resulting in demotivation and ineffectiveness, is created. This in turn impacts negatively on company performance and long-term sustainability of the organization. To avoid this, clear goals and objectives need to be defined and that is the crux of an effective Performance Management system. Performance Management is the process of defining clear objectives and targets for individuals and teams, and the regular review of actual achievement and eventual rewarding for target achievement. Performance management is a system designed to identify the ways to achieve organizational goals through constant assessment
It includes organizational structure assessments, stakeholder assessments etc. This help in understanding the challenges which may come during implementation of change. • Time Frame and Scale: The other critical aspect is the time frame and scale of implementation of process change. This shall involve critical analysis of impact of the same on services during the time frame and how steep it will change working style of employees. • Organisational Strength and power of change management team: Assess the strength of change management team.
Similarly the author advocates for a realistic centralization that considerate to reveal the complexity of the structure in its different levels. Additionally, the terminology must describe the relevancy of the theory if applied in different scenarios. The concepts should be operational which means that they should resemble to observable facts. It is important to mention that communication and loyalty are important factors that should be comprised ion the definition of administrative theory. This concepts influence the decision-making of the organization when coordinating the coordination of departments.
As a leader and being positioned between the demands of management, team and the workers; leadership skills must include the ability to juggle the various priorities while keeping performance high and cost under control. 9.0 Conclusion In conclusion, there are several leadership styles that I can relate to. However I feel that my constant pursuit of self improvement of my skills and recognizing my strengths-taking opportunities to improve them. As for my challenges, seek coaching and mentoring assistance, attend workshops, seminars and conferences that are conducive to my leadership skills and maintain