These types of strategies “make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations” (Oxford, 1990, p.8). These researchers also do not agree as to whether strategies need to be conscious or unconscious in other for them to be strategies. Most believe that learning strategies are intentional and are consciously controlled by the learner, hence, there is a conscious movement toward the language goal (Bialystok, 1990; Oxford, 1990, 1996a). These top researchers also use different terms when referring to LS or LLS. The terms “learner strategies” (Wendin & Rubin, 1987), others use “learning strategies” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Chamot & O’Malley, 1994).
Chapter- 4: Learning Process After reading this chapter, you should be able to: • Appreciate learning process • The basic concept of learning • Know principles and doctrines of learning • Theories of learning • Learning curve and virtuous learning circle Introduction Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. Learning is indexed by a change in behaviour which must be translated into observable behaviour. After learning, learners are capable of performing something which they could not do earlier. It is neither transitory nor fixed. The change in behaviour need not occur immediately following the learning experience.
He/she has to discover his/her capacity to learn and which strategy best suits oneself. Once the individual has managed to fully understand oneself in terms of learning, the learning process would be easier to learn independently. The main element of independent learning is the shift of responsibility of the learning process from the teacher to the students. When students are in a primary class, they require additional attention and support as they are unable to take the responsibility of learning independently. However, as they get older and reach a mature age and are capable enough of handling responsibilities, the responsibility of the teacher towards them gradually decreases.
LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Language learning strategies are mainpoints to make learning easy and simple for learners when they are learning a language. These strategies are important to improve some skills such as learning skills, thinking skills, learning to learn skills and problem solving skills. These skills should be improved with the strategies because, the process of learning a language is long and difficult. If the skills are improved by possible and suitable strategies, the process can be shorter and the learning can be more effective. (Oxford, 1990) These strategies have some features which make the strategies important and necessary for learning (Oxford, 1990) The most important feature of the strategies is that they
initiative for planning their own learning, seeking out the necessary resources, implementing and evaluating their own learning (tenant p10). The research by Tough prompted a multitude of research on the phenomenon. To date self-directed learning is one of the most widely researched area in the field of adult learning ( Owen , T Ross 2002). Categories of SDL Merriam, Caffarella & Baumgartner p107 have classified studies on self-directed learning into three broad categories. Each of these categories captures a major perspective of self-directed learning.
Since the late 60s and early 70s, there has been a significant shift within the field of language learning and teaching through greater emphasis on learners and learning instead of on teachers and teaching. It looks as if a reasonable goal for language teachers to make their students become less dependent on the teachers and reach a level of autonomy (O’Malley and Chamot, 1995). Learners are required to persist in learning even if the formal classroom setting is not accessible. Learner autonomy is in line with existing views about the active involvement of learners, the popularity of learner-centered approaches, and learner independence of teachers (Littlewood, 1996). A basic element of an autonomous approach to language learning and teaching
Not having someone to encourage you can be a struggle, but a self-directed learner can act autonomously and easily achieve the established goals. There is also the need to have the self-discipline to organize your time and plan your study strategy. Finding your own rhythm and methods are crucial to improve your learning. Self-directed learners has also the responsibility of monitoring their own progress. A good sign of the intrinsically motivated learner
Cognitive strategies. Cognitive strategies refer to technical areas of learning vocabulary and those are not related to mental processing. These strategies include repetition, taking notes, highlighting new words and the like. Cognitive involves the manipulation of information or knowledge in an immediate task for the purpose of acquiring or attaining some information or knowledge’s. Metacognitive Strategies.
The researcher provided autonomy supported by engaging students in reading activities for their own enjoyment. According to DE Naeghel et al. autonomous reading is associated with more outcomes, more reading engagement and better reading comprehension. The instructor tried to promote the motivation for reading by giving students age-appropriate choices, connect with students’ interests. The participants in experimental group 2 on the other hand were taught through the thinking together approach.
Ravenscroft (2004) argues that cognitive and behaviorist learning theories are focused on the individual and tend to disregard the social aspects of learning. They posit that workplace learning is driven by social relationships and interactions moderated by cultural norms. Some of the theories that promote better understanding of workplace learning are related to adult learning and organizational learning. Adult Learners are practical, autonomous, goal-oriented and are actively involved in the identification and fulfillment of their learning needs (Merriam and Bierema, 2013). E-Learning programs can support these characteristics, strengthen the learning process and motivate employees to learn by prioritizing self-directed learning, clearly outlining the objectives and benefits of the program and incorporating problem solving tasks based on real work situations (Poell and Woerkom, 2011).