The most important part of the assessment is the interpretation and the use of the information that is gleaned for its intended purpose assessment is embedded in the learning process, it is tightly interconnected with curriculum and instruction. As teachers and students work towards the achievement of curriculum outcomes, assessments plays a consent role in informing instruction, guiding the student’s next steps, and checking progress and achievement. Teachers use many different process and strategies for classroom assessment, and adapt them to suit the assessment purpose and needs of individual students. Research shows that students learn best when assessment are based on clear learning goals. It differs according to students learning
This defines the roles of the teacher and the learners in the learning process which states that the learners will be the focus of the teaching-learning process. The teacher’s role is to facilitate learning by utilizing the interests and unique abilities of learners to reach a goal. On the other hand, the learners’ role is an active participant rather than a passive one. This means that the learner will be involved in tasks that will help him reach the goal of learning.
Explain why teachers should adopt “ differentiated instruction “ in class” The cornerstone of differentiation is active planning, the teacher plans instruction strategically to meet learners where they are and to offer multiple avenues through which they can acces, understand and apply learning. In differentiating lessons, teachers must take into account not only what they are teaching ( content) but also whom they are teaching (individual that is students). They need to know the varying readiness level , interests and learning profiles of each of their students and the design learning options to fit into these factors. Differentiated instruction means giving students choices about how to learn and how to demonstrate their learning.
According to Duffy (2004) it is important for the mentor to facilitate learning needs and assessment by giving the student the opportunity to reflect on their learning needs and assess themselves. It is also arguable that it is important for a student to identify their own learning needs and self-assessment but the mentor needs to adhere to assessment process in order to provide fair and accurate assessment (Walsh 2014). The most important role of a mentor is to assess the progress of a student accurately and identify the learning needs and problems which the student is encountering on a placement at an early stage. (Philips et al 2000). To assess accurately and holistically a mentor should be able to assess the student’s competency through measurable assessment tools and to do assessment process accurately (Embo et al 2015).
The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
It also thinks all knowledge is attributed to experience by the learner and his community. Bruner, J (1966) mentions that learning is an active process that new ideas will be constructed by one’s current and past knowledge. Previously the researcher mentioned that the cognitive structure is a mental process which allows a learner to push given information in past in order to construct a new idea. Likewise, this theory often described in a school education field. Richardson V (1997) mentioned that the classroom from this theory should be taught as follows.
Dewey’s tenet on individualism is that of a learner-centered approach which the writer thinks would afford the learner to be actively involved in their education. Attention is placed on the child and not the teacher. Learner-centered learning suggests students engage actively as doers in education settings. These learners should be empowered to decide on what, when, where, and how to learn. Subsequently, “Learner-centered teachers teach students how to think, solve problems, evaluate evidence, analyze arguments, generate hypotheses—all those learning skills is essential in mastering material in the discipline”.
The role of the teacher is to provide a meaningful learning environment that is individualized for the learner (Subban, 2006). According to Ibrahim (2017) “The theoretical framework for personalized learning includes a constructivist perspective, with the teacher functioning as the MKO and assisting the students through the ZPD by keeping in mind the students’ academic background and learning styles”. Finally, social interactions inside or outside their environment with “more knowledgeable others” (MKOs) help the students in their Personal Learning environments. ii.
(Johnson,Johnson, and Smith, 1998). Students focus their attention on the assigned task to increase his or her own learning and the learning of group members. Interaction and effective communication between students is critical during cooperative work assignments. Group members equally share the assigned task, tutor other students in the group to learn and complete the assigned task. Learning course content and team skills while working on assigned tasks is an expected outcome of cooperative learning.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under