Thirdly, the causes of learning disabilities that are differences in brain structure, alcohol or drug use, lead in water or paint, and dementia or a traumatic brain injury. Lastly, the contrast with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Learning disabilities should not be mixed with learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps. Learning disabilities
Other comprehensive range of causes of disability are wars, civil conflicts, accidents , poverty, overcrowding, unhygienic conditions, natural disasters ,resources limitation , geographical distance, stress and psycho-social problems (NHRC 2005). Models of Disability A model is defined as an essential system, shaped by ideas and is used to bring out the meaning from the information as well as to organize these ideas and theories (Coleridge 1993). It encloses specific knowledge and assumes link between data. The paper outlines the assumptions of models and examines the consequences of these models of thought for disabled people and for the rehabilitation professions. The core of all definitions of disability is that it results from some kind of barrier and there exists a difference in the locus of this barrier.
An invisible disability can be defined as a disability that people cannot see immediately or clearly. According to The Disabled World’s Invisible Disability article, “Invisible disability, or hidden disability, is defined as disabilities that are not immediately apparent.” This suggests that disabilities that are not immediately apparent or distinguishable, but are still classified as handicaps are called invisible disabilities. In certain ways, invisible disabilities can come with a set of new problems, like prejudice and the overall non acceptance of society. For example, the website www.disabled-world.com states, “People with some kinds of invisible disabilities, such as chronic pain or some kind of sleep disorder, are often accused of faking or imagining their disabilities.” Though in many cases invisible disabilities cause more pain and difficulty, people are still questionable of the validity of them. Just as the invisibly disabled have to face challenges with how people perceive them, the visibly disabled face them as well.
On the one hand, specifically in regards to learning disorders once categorised it becomes the focal point and everyone in the surrounding of the child needs to be aware of it. Expectations have to be adjusted and this can result in underestimating the disabled youngster’s capabilities. In additional, issues can occur regarding early diagnosis which possibly mistakes a child that is not quite up to peer standards yet with one having a learning disorder (In Understanding Dyslexia and Dyscalculia, The Open University). As a consequence, this mistake can prevent the minor from achieving their full academic
“Depression can be caused by many things but it is most likely caused because of a chemical imbalance in the brain, or it is inherited, or it is genetic. It can also be because of a family history of depression” (Mooney 45).Discovering more about the imbalances in the brain that causes people to have mental illness helps validate that patients are not “crazy” and it is not all in their head. They do not have to feel like no one believes them because there is scientific proof that they are sick and need help. Understanding the technical side of how people develop mental diseases helps diminish the stigma behind people going to get treated or for people to accept that they have a
Language based reading impairment is a reading problem based on a language disorder. An example of this would be dyslexia. These disorders can be identified through research in student's abilities to be phonologically aware, knowledge of the alphabet, and grammatical speech. These categories can help identify early on If a student has a language-based reading impairment. Speech Disorders: This disorder typically occurs in children (years 9 and younger).
Awareness for communication disorders continued to build in the 1940’s during World War II, when a significant number of soldiers began returning from war with speech aphasia (a language disorder in which comprehension or production of speech or literacy is impaired) from brain damage. Thus, with the upsurge in cases of speech disabilities came “the introduction of a number of assessment and therapy approaches focused on underlying communication disorders”, as well as a “rise to brain studies, technological advances, and the development of standardized testing procedures, including receptive and expressive language assessment and treatment techniques” (“What is Speech-Language Pathology”, n.d. para. 22). Another step in the history of speech-language pathology was the distinction of speech disorders from language disorders within the years of 1965 to 1975. Prompted by progressions in linguistics (the study of language), “Their work enhanced the work of speech-language pathologists, allowing them to begin more effectively treating a variety of language delays and disorders.” (“What is Speech-Language Pathology”, n.d. para.
By 2011, more than 1 billion people around the world were living with a kind of disability wrapping 15% of the world’s population (WHO, 2011). For so long disability was identified under the “individual model”; as a consequence of an impairment “lack or defectiveness in any part of the body”, that leaves the one suffering from it with long term functional limitations. Recently this conceptual understanding has been questioned shedding the light on the social barriers and norms that label impaired people as disabled and restricts them from their social rights and activities. In fact, the society’s organization is increasing the occurrence of abuse at higher incidence for disabled people compared to the rest of the population and by that are considered as “vulnerable”. The following article written by Hollomotz (2012) “Disability, Oppression and Violence: Towards a Sociological Explanation” will be discussed and analysed throughout this paper to understand better the different social forces that face people with learning difficulties and leave them disabled.
It can be acquired through diseases, can be hereditary or result of birth defects. Other causes include wars or other armed conflicts, unhygienic conditions of living, poverty, geographical isolation, natural disasters, malnutrition etc. Thus, causes of disability go beyond mere medical conditions. For example, on account of malnutrition, incidence of anemia among expectant and nursing mothers between the age group of 15-19 is highest in India in the SAARC region. Also micro-nutrient deficiencies can lead to diseases like blindness, beri-beri, scurvy etc.
But there are other terms used, as listed below i. Children with mathematical difficulties are also known as 1. Early numerical competencies (struggle with basic counting number recognition, understanding of symbol, quantity discrimination and concepts of addition and subtraction). 2. Dyscalculia: is a specific learning disability in math.