and etc) it can impact on the later child development. It is important that during pregnancy that
FAT is an acronym used to represent frustration anxiety and tension represented by The Fat City Workshop Part 1: Experiencing Frustration, Anxiety and Tension. Upon watching the video, I wondered why the instructor, Dr. Rick Lavoie was barking out questions and people looked uptight and timid. After further viewing of the video, I found that the mediator was asking professional individuals questions related to the book that the seminar was based on. The acronym FAT as I previously stated stands for frustration, anxiety and tension, which was the purpose of this seminar/workshop. The instructor was highlighting the kinds of situations some teachers put children in every day. Some educators do not take into account that students get embarrassed by their sarcasm, and other students who it is not directed at find it to be funny and move on.
Learning disabilities can come from a biological stance. It’s based on the way a person is “wired”. It affects the brain’s ability to process or store information. More than likely, children with learning disabilities are smarter than everyone else. They just have trouble with things like reading, spelling, or writing. Sadly, it can not be cured, however there are types of medicines that can somewhat improve it and make it easier to live with.
Another example would be spina bifida; where the child’s legs may be partially or fully paralysed and they may have problems controlling their bowel and bladder. Physical disabilities can prevent children taking part in some physical activities, thus impairing their physical development and ultimately their social interactions in the playground or during group work. This in turn can affect confidence and their ability to interact with their
Disability affects development and learning because disability affects children's development in different ways. That can be physically and sensory, social, emotional and behavioural and learning or cognitive.
Of course, we are not talking here about students whose comprehension is severely impaired, because they are usually schooled individually and have a special grading system, adjusted to their needs and abilities. But in the classrooms there are often students with less obvious disabilities, which, although less severe, can also create academic challenges. Some of them, such as dyslexia or dyscalculia, are directly related to learning and may affect the speed at which students acquire the material. Others, such as anxiety or ADHD may not only disrupt learning, but also are very likely to cause discrepancies between the students’ subject knowledge and their exam and assignment results.
The timing of identification was similar in each group. The proportion of students diagnosed with LD who were ELL matches the portion in the schools in the group with RTI. The proportion who were ELL in comparison group suggests underrepresentation with 16% of students diagnosed with LD in schools were 50 percent of students are ELL. Reading difficulties of students with vocabulary and comprehension problems became increasingly prominent as more ELL students were identified as learning disabled in third through fifth
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a syndrome diagnosed primarily at birth, has treatments and is easily prevented.
In the Warnock report the term ‘ children with learning difficulties’ should be used to describe children are currently categorised as educationally sub normal and those with educational difficulties.Gillard, D. Warnock report 1978 - notes on the text. http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/warnock/ .
Norm-referenced tests are created by professionals, researched and published. They are used to compare a student with others that are similar to them. These comparable students are a norm reference group that is compose of those with similar culture, background, ethnicity, sex and other characteristics. Furthermore, students with disabilities should be included in this sample of student so that it will be a valid comparison for disabled students, too. Norm groups provide standard scores used to determine if a student is average, above average or below average, which allows for determining if a student is at the appropriate level, above or below it. Also, these tests must be shown to be valid or test the areas they are designed to measure.
According to “Deseret News National”, The ten (10) common disabilities American children have are; Autism, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, Epilepsy, Spina bifida, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Intellectual disability, Depression. There are other disabilities such as neurological, genetic, chromosomal abnormality, developmental, metabolic, childhood, brain, delays, disorder/ disability, traumatic brain injury, birth defects, Auditory Processing, Visual Impairment, Emotional/Behavior Disorders. “The most common developmental disorder is mental retardation” (L. Straus). According to the CDC, more than one out of every 100 school children in the United States has been diagnosed with some form of mental
Learning difficulties are also a factor that influences a child’s development. Children with learning difficulties will need extra support with certain areas of development and may develop low self-esteem because they get annoyed with themselves for not being able to do something, such as a simple numeracy problem or read a book.
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) is an assessment tool that was created in 2000 by a team of neuropsychologist and other licensed psychologist who have specialized in working with children. The following sections will discuss the assessments brief history and primary purpose, psychometric properties, basic format and administration, scoring, and appropriate use by population and cultural considerations.
Between birth to 6 months babies and children use their senses to become aware e.g. knowing they are hungry, as well as recognising key people in their lives and responding to physical smiles. In the next 6 months, they are beginning to understand tone of voice and begin to have favourite toys. Between 1 to 2 years children start to use objects correctly e.g. a cup. At this point they have a rapidly extending vocabulary and show awareness of others. 3 to 4 years is the age when children are fascinated by why things happen. By age 4 they can give reasons for their actions, remember major events and sort objects by colour and size.
The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and The Center for Parent Information and Resources are both good websites that explains Intellectual Disabilities. According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, an “intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18 (AAIDD - Resources for Intellectual and Developmental Disability Professionals, n.d).” Intellectual disability is one of the most common developmental disability. It is estimated that