According to Vygotsky (1978), knowledge is social in nature and is constructed through a process of interaction and communication among learners in social settings. He made a strong argument that students need to demonstrate their knowledge by creating explanations and interpreting their work for others. Each student has a base level of knowledge, but they can increase it by practicing what they know well and adding onto it. Therefore, the social interaction between the student, teacher and other students reinforces their increase of knowledge. Classes where students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively construct their knowledge (Brooks, 1993).
Comparatively, the knowledge of learning is another valuable element to Social Reconstructionists. Schiro (2008) explains that learning takes place when students “have inculcated into them a way of viewing events in their environment through an intelligence oriented around a vision of a future good society” (Schiro, 2008, pg 180). Coupled with the knowledge component, learning is expressed when the students have placed the wants and needs of society as a whole, above what they might feel is fair. The evaluation component is analyzed when the knowledge and learning have been presented and the betterment of the community is
Here, people understand things through reflection and by analyzing changing social patterns, which in turn influences their view of the world. In this respect, Rigoni recommended that the curriculum should take this approach to enable educators to understand the struggles students experience while learning and develop mechanisms that will streamline the learning process. The approach makes it possible for teachers to identify essential content areas that would benefit students and include them in the curriculum. It also reinforces the concepts and skills of self-disclosure, professional use of self, critical self-reflection, and narrative inquiry that would enable educators to develop curriculums that would make the learning process easy for students and improve the quality of educational outcomes. Moreover, social learning promotes the development of wisdom and intuition in students, which is vital for their understanding of the world.
The process of teaching and learning has the same value as the product, therefore how the children learn has the same significance as what they learn. The lessons the child learns in the process of teaching and learning have greater significance than the final product or result they have to present. The knowledge and skill gained by the learners should equip the learners to apply themselves in a variety of contexts. The systematic instruction received by a learner is important as it should progress from ``simple recall `` according to Bloom`s taxonomy to ``high order thinking skills``. The learner should be viewed in totality thus considering not just the cognitive but the social, emotional, affective,spiritual and moral
Learning What is learning? Learning is formally defined as ‘relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience’ (Grieve, et al. 2005). This implies that when there is a change in behavior, we can see learning has taken place. In order for learning to take place, the behavior has to be relatively permanent and the result of an experience (Grieve, et al.
We will search in dictionaries and it reveals that learning is “acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience or instruction.” An educational psychologist would define learning even more succinctly as “a change in an individual caused by experience” (Slavin, 2003, p. 138). Teaching which is implied in the first definition of learning, may be defined as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand.” Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning which enabling learner learns will determine your philosophy of education, your teaching style, your approach, methods and classroom techniques (Brown, H.G., 2007, p. 7-8). 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING OF LEARNER DIVERSITY In Malaysia, students between the ages of 5 to 18 years are expected to learn in school with a heavy expectation on their shoulder.
The importance of learning has increased in the context of social changes and environmental development. The social learning has been defined as learning that occurs through the reciprocal interaction with the environment and others. It is said to be a metaphor that provides a way in order to understand the complexities of the factors that influence directly and indirectly to the education. Every adult is contributing towards the contextual factor and become a part of complex ecology with the system of interdependent social relationships of self-sustaining. The adults are learning in the ways at the workplace through educational trajectories and the complex intertwining of the social institutions like labour market, workplace, and community.
Adherents of social constructivism feel most meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities with other human beings (McMahon, 1997 as cited by O’Bien, 2007). Social constructivism is based on the premise that the social world of the learner includes the learner, the teacher, friends, other students, and other people (Lawson, 2003). Because the teacher plays such an important role in the education process, both in terms of what content is taught and what methods are used it, it seems that studying the underlying attitudes of teachers with the students in their classrooms would help teachers better understand the types of experiences that both students and social studies teachers have as well as the social interactions in the
Furthermore, there comes a personal gratification when you have helped another student overcome a problem through advice or research that you shared with them. Social constructivism will be an everyday part of my future career as learning through communication a key factor in teaching (Kim, 2001). Students are encouraged to engage in social activities which require a hands-on approach to learning together (Young,
For them, “learning is the network”. The connectivism theory emphasizes that learning experience is mainly focused on the learner, not the teacher nor the curriculum. Learners in this theory serve as instruments in designing the learning content and determining the communication levels, and persons who can take part (Kop and Hill, 2008). Furthermore, Siemens (2006, as cited in Goldie, 2016) clearly states that learning does not only exist inside but also outside each learner , thus, it may be inherent in non-human devices. These devices such as computers and software serve as facilitators of making connections between people, ideas, and information.