1. What are the two critical elements to keep in mind when using instructional scaffolding? Modeling and Practice are the two critical elements to keep in mind when using instructional scaffolding. Modeling is when the teacher demonstrates or models each step in a task or strategy multiple times, so that through repetition and modeling the students understand both how to perform each step and why. Practice is when the students are allowed to either work individually or in groups with the teacher to practice a task or strategy.
Keeping a thinking journal. Students need a journal or learning log to reflect upon their thinking. IV. Planning and self- regulation: Students can be taught to make plans for learning activities, organizing materials and becoming self-directed learners. V. Debriefing the thinking process: Closure activities focus student discussion on thinking processes to develop awareness of strategies that can be applied to other learning situations.
Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
During learning, Gagne (as cited in Smith, 2009: 125 ) argues that giving attention is to be conducted firstly. There are several methods to enhance students’ focus by presenting something unique during the class, such as using multi-sensory method. Through giving the students a pleasure in learning will ease the process of storing the information in their
Effective classroom management is not simply about punishing the student and moving on. Instead, a teacher should remind the child that they are capable of behaving better, and encourage them to do their best. Finally, effective classroom management also relies on having a positive classroom
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences. The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place (Miller, 2012). Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.
Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating information mentally over and over. Many of us have experienced studying for a test or quiz and repeating definitions over and over. This is an example of rehearsing information so it stays in our mind. Rehearsing keeps information in our short-term, or working, memory, and with repeated rehearsal over time, material can enter our long-term memory. In order to increase the likelihood that information will be remembered in long-term, we combine maintenance rehearsal with Elaborative rehearsal.
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.