L2 Learning Style Analysis

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Learning occurs in many ways and no two learners learn the same way. Different people possess different learning styles; they prefer some certain methods of learning over other ones, mostly while even not being aware of this fact. Ellis (1986) says "variability in language-learner language is the result of not only contextual factors, but of individual differences in the way learners learn an L2 and the way they use their L2 knowledge. It is probably accurate to say that no two learners learn an L2 in exactly the same way" (p. 10).
Reid (1987) states that "learning styles refer to a pervasive quality in the learning strategies or the learning behavior of an individual" (p. 89). Spolsky (1978) also defines learning styles as "identified, individual
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They also motivate the students' performance in the language; so in this case, teaching is geared largely to tests. Hughes (1996) mentioned that if a test is regarded important, preparation for it should dominate all teaching and learning activities. Otherwise, the test content and testing techniques will be at variance with objectives of the course, which will result harmful washback. Davies (1990) also mentioned that tests have great influence on teaching, which is known as washback or backwash effect, and this strong influence is usually negative. For example, for university study in one of the English speaking countries, the students should have a good command of language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) in order to be able to understand the lectures in the classroom, take notes, attend classroom discussion, and read and comprehend the texts. But if the tests are in multiple-choice format, then the examinees' practice will focus on practicing multiple-choice items rather than skills which they need in that specific situation. Thus, tests effect is harmful on teaching.
Davis (1968) believed "a good test is an obedient servant since it follows and apes the teaching" (p. 2). But Hughes (2002) criticized this view since they are occasions when teaching is poor or inappropriate and tests create a beneficial on teaching. Therefore,
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Do Iranian EFL students, who happen to be of auditory learning style, perform differently on lexical multiple-choice lexical tests compared to students with other dominant learning styles?
5. Do Iranian EFL students, who happen to be of visual learning style, perform differently on lexical multiple-choice lexical tests compared to students with other dominant learning styles?
6. Do Iranian EFL students, who happen to be of tactile learning style, perform differently on lexical multiple-choice lexical tests compared to students with other dominant learning styles?
Learning styles are important cognitive preferences that can have a great contribution to the process of learning. The effect of learning styles on different fields of learning has been studied to see what kind of activities would be proper for different learner types. McDonough (2002) states that "it has been suggested many times that a general strategy of instructional matching is appropriate: adopting teaching to find a method which is suitable for the students' learning characteristics. From a common sense point of view, it seems silly to insist on playing games with learners who do not like playing games" (p.
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