It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
There are many different learning theories and many different theorists with beliefs on how we learn. Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
Piaget refers to schemas as a way for individuals to organize their knowledge. He theorized that individuals learn when they go through a situation that their mental schema can not process easily and this leads to disequilibrium. To re-equalize, according to Paigets theory, the mind has to adapt to using a new skill or assimilate some new information.
Constructivism theory also can define as generative learning that creates a meaning from what the students learn. It means that constructivism theory is a collaborate of learning, teaching and knowledge, which is stressed on cognitive aspect that the students can learn by themselves and understand what they learn. As a result, the students can find and change the complicated information that they got to be simple information and they can understand it. Constructivism is a good method for students because it can build on their knowledge and experience, helps students in critical thinking and improve students’ writing skill. Constructivism theory can help students to build their own knowledge.
Assignment 1: Teaching, Learning and Technology Learning refers to the change in the subject behavior to given information brought about by his repeated experience in that situation, provided that the behavior change can not be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation or temporary states of the subject ( Hilgard and Bower) , Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. (Kimble and Garmezy 1963: 133) Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Our understanding of how the learner learns will determine our philosophy of education, teaching style, approach, methods and classroom techniques. (Brown
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.
LEARNING - Learning is the demonstration of gaining new, or altering and strengthening, existing information, practices, aptitudes, qualities, or inclination and may include blending distinctive sorts of data. The capability to learn is controlled by people, creatures and a few machines. Advance about whether has a tendency to take after learning bends. Learning is not obligatory; it is relevant. It doesn 't happen at the same time, yet expands upon and is molded by what we know.
Cognitive psychologists challenge the limitation of behaviourism in its focus on observable behaviour. Changes in behaviour are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learners mind (Dembo, 1994). Ogwo and Oranu (2006) states that cognitive theory is significant to the entire learning process because, it stresses on human intelligent and its potential for helping learners to retain, process and apply acquired information in future. Cognitive learning theory
USE QUESTIONING AND FEEDBACK TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS UNIT 2, 6.4 LITERATURE REVIEW Harlen explains that there are two main reasons for assessing students: to help their learning and to report on what they have learned. He argues that researchers typically discuss these reasons as different purposes for assessment and “mistakenly as different kinds of assessments that are somehow opposed to one another” (Harlen, 2007b). How can they achieve the aim? When learners know and understand these principles, the quality of learning will improve. Sharing this information with my learners will promote ownership of the learning aims and a sense of shared responsibility between me the teacher and learner to achieve those aims.