Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences. Constructions of meaning may initially bear little relationship to reality (as in the naive theories of children), but will become increasing
There are many different learning theories and many different theorists with beliefs on how we learn. Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
In short, the learner must actively construct new information into his or her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.” (K, Patterson 1) Cognitivist tend to try and make sure that whatever they are taught that they can connect it to the existing knowledge they have already. Cognitivists, they place greater importance on
The general principles in this theory are; people learn by observing other people’s behavior, learning is an internal behavior which may or may not lead to a behavior, during the learning process, people need to be motivated as well for an action to happen, people set goals for themselves depending on what they have observed from others and lastly, people are able to control their actions depending on the consequences that they have observed from others (Bandura, 1986). Stone (2000:4) in his book states that the core at Banduras cognitive theory is modeling that teaches new behaviors both negative and positive implying that ‘people are products and producers of their environment’
Self-regulated Learning: A Compatible Concept Husain Abdulhay University of Kashan, Iran firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Issue of self versus other is also diligently stressed and applied in education so as to put person at the helm of situation, not a pawn at the mercy of circumstances. In the same vein, this study aims to draw attention to a newly developed concept of learning which overemphasizes the role of individual learner in attunement of his thought, emotions and strategies to accelerate and escalate the extent of his acquisition. To do so, an overview of this new phenomenon known as self-regulated learning is given at first and evidence attesting to the fruitfulness and utility of such strategy is dispensed in the following.
Such support can come in many forms such as ‘helping learners do needs assessments, locating learning resources, choosing instructional methods, and evaluating strategies’ Merriam p107. The second category refers to self-directed learning as a process of learning. Attempts are made to understand the process of self-direction with a view of adopting them to formal learning. They are three main models, linear, interactive, and instructional models Knowles and Tough model are linear. Knowles developed learning contract meant to encourage and support learner’s self-direction.
Firstly, a set of information-processing system such as perception, attention and memory can be processed by the environment which function differently as children and adults mature. An example, as children obtain more information about the world and this support new learning because they can more readily express new information to what they already know. Secondly, the information-processing system analysis and transfer the information in regular ways. Control process which manage the analysis and flow of the information within the system. For example, we are using the control process when try to retrieve someone else name or specific information from the knowledge base or listen to a familiar voice in crowd or to solve the problem by using a rule-of-thumb.
Learners look for meaning and will attempt to find consistency and order in the events of the world even in the absence of full or complete information. Some learning approaches that could harbor this interactive learning include reciprocal teaching, peer collaboration, cognitive preparation, problem-based teaching, web quests, anchored instruction and other approaches that involve learning with others. In fact, there is much pedagogy that leverages constructivist theory. Most approaches that have developed from constructivism suggest that learning is achieved best using a hands-on approach. Learners learn
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
Piaget refers to schemas as a way for individuals to organize their knowledge. He theorized that individuals learn when they go through a situation that their mental schema can not process easily and this leads to disequilibrium. To re-equalize, according to Paigets theory, the mind has to adapt to using a new skill or assimilate some new information.
Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5). In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under