Poor oxygen saturation relative to FiO2 and crepitation are secondary to pulmonary congestion and oedema. Backwards cardiac effects increase hydrostatic pressure, causing fluid filtration into the lungs, resulting in impaired alveolar gas exchange and oedema in the lung. Thus, causing reduced oxygen saturation and crepitation as alveoli pop open after being collapsed by oedema (Murray,
The mitral valve is also reconstructed during surgery either by repairing it or, if needed, replacing it so that the valve will close tightly enough to regulate the blood flow. However, during a complete atrioventricular septal defect repair, the doctor will also divide the single mitral valve into two separate valves, with one each on the left and right sides of the repaired septum. If dividing the mitral valve is not possible for the procedure, then a heart valve replacement would be needed to proceed. The anatomical system that is affected by this procedure is the cardiovascular system. The operation is performed in the chest cavity on the heart, with the septum and valves being reconstructed or replaced.
 DCM is a progressive disease of the heart muscle. The disease is characterized by weakening of the ventricular myocardial muscle, resulting from elongation of myocytes accompanied by a vacuolar sarcoplasm and reduced myofibril density.  Weakening of the heart muscle results in a decreased stroke volume, leading to compensatory changes by a process called remodeling. The remodeling is characterized by elongation of myocytes by addition of sarcomeres, resulting in dilation -enlargement - of the heart while the wall thickness does not increase proportionally. This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.
Aneurysms are when a weakened area in the arterial wall begins to expand or dilate. When the artery bursts, tissues can get damaged because the oxygenated blood doesn’t get to them and there can be massive internal bleeding that may lead to death. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), is excessive buildup of fluid in the lungs or organs due to inadequate pumping in the heart. The fluid leads to swelling that clog the organs. Mechanical malfunctions of the heart is when there is a lack of oxygen to the myocardium that leads to the inability of the heart to pump or contract in an area.
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis. Pathophysiology When Pulmonary Stenosis is present, resistant to blood flow cause right ventricular hypertrophy – right atrial pressure will increase – reopening of the foramen ovale, shunting of unoxygenated blood into the left atrium, systemic circulation. Clinical manifestation: Cyanosis, characteristic murmur , cardiomegaly .
The pleural space begins to fill causing the-the mediastinum to maneuver around, which can lead to disruption of the airflow and pulmonary circulation. Once the air circulation is disrupted the patient begins to compensate. Tension pneumothorax can be misleading if not realizing to symptoms. A patient with tension pneumothorax is going to have chest pain caused by the lung collapsing. The patient will experience respiratory distress causing the patient to breath faster because they are not getting the proper amount of oxygen, respiratory distress can lead to altered mental status and diminished breath
Vascular Dementia can occur after a person has a stroke due to major blood vessels being blocked. iii. It also causes your thinking ability to decline by not allowing vital oxygen and nutrients to your brain cells. iv. In an article by Alzheimer’s Association it mentions that many experts who study this type like to call it “Vascular Cognitive Impairment” because it better explains the idea that your vascular thinking skills can change and it can either be small or serve.
There are usually two major types of heart failure. The Rright-sided failure, occurs when the right ventricle is not able to pump blood effectively into the pulmonary artery, causing increased volume and pressure in the venous system and causing peripheral edema. Left sided heart failure (CHF) which involves with decreased cardiac output and elevated pulmonary venous pressure may be acute, chronic, and mild to severe. It is further divided into systolic failure and diastolic failure. Systolic failure happens when the heart cannot contract forcefully during systole to eject adequate amount of blood into the circulation.
In serious situations it can lead to death, by patients that refuse medical care and others that develop an undesirable autonomic nervous system reaction response known as vasovagal reaction which can be triggered by needle puncture. A vasovagal reaction can also manifest itself as syncope, where physiologically it is characterized by a slow on heart rate and drop of blood pressure, resulting in a lack of blood supply to the brain causing fainting and confusion. In patients with arteries compromised by atherosclerosis the non-efficient blood supply can lead to myocardial infarction. Evaluation of vital signs during the venipuncture procedure can be vital for prevention of these reactions and in Mrs. Jo's situation there was no substantial alteration or
CAD patients who also have hopelessness were less likely to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (107). The interaction between heart and mind works in a dual manner. Cardiac illnesses can cause distress and lead to depressive symptoms or psychological stressors which itself can affect the heart through the autonomic nervous system