WHAT IS LEGIONNAIRES - Peter Legionnaires' disease is a sometimes lethal form of pneumonia, which is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria of the Legionella family. Legionnaires disease can occur after a person inhales contaminated water vapour or dust. HOW IS IT SPREAD - Peter It is caused by the bacterium Legionella, which has over 50 different species, with one of the most common legionnaires disease causing strain in australia being Legionella pneumophila. The bacteria can be found in both
So there is no risk of a community out break, unless the bacteria is found in the communities water supply. Unlike Pontiac fever, Legionnaires disease is fatal if left untreated. The disease can be treated with antibiotics, because the bacteria multiplies in the cell, the antibiotics used are excellent intercellular penetrator. Most commonly used antibiotic are levofloxacin, azithromycin. In order to prevent the spread of Legionella bacteria the health department would need to preform regular water sample test.
I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Among the developing countries, infectious diseases are still one of the main health concerns. Here in the Philippines, the Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Pneumonia is the second leading cause of morbidity (2012) and third leading cause of mortality (1998) in Filipinos, based on the Philippine Health Statistics Report from the Department of Health (FHSIS 2012; FHSIS 1998). Pneumonia can be caused by several kinds of organisms and some of these typical pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. However, atypical pathogens like Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella are also commonly implicated with pneumonia (PCPG CAP).
ABSTRACT Bacterial conjunctivitis occurs in persons of all races, although differences in frequencies may be reflected by geographical variations of pathogen prevalence.The study was therefore taken up to detect the prevalence of bacterial and fungal pathogens causing occular infections and to study their antibiotic resistant profiles. A total of 44 kerato-conjunctivitis samples were collected, out of which, 31/44 (73%) were fungal isolates . The prevalence of fungal isolates was as follows- 7 Aspergillus fumigatus (22.5%), 3 Aspergillus flavus (9.67%), 4 Aspergillus nidulans (12.9%), 7 Aspergillus niger (22.5%), 10 Fusarium sps. (32.25%). A total of 39/44 (86.36%) bacterial isolates were obtained in this study.
It is estimated that 12.7% of the patients with acute febrile illness who were admitted to the hospitals were positive for leptospirosis. (Sehgal et al, 2003). The outbreaks of leptospirosis were reported from Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and many sporadic cases have also been reported from areas such as Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Assam (WHO, 2006). Leptospirosis has also been known to be endemic sin our country since the early 20 th century , in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, wherein the serovars Valbuzzi, Ratnapura and Grippo-typhosa have been documented to be the cause of severe epidemics. (Vijayachari et al, 2004).
Pediatric pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in children. Although , there are cures for this infection , if not detected early , it can pose to be life threatening. Most cases of pediatric pneumonia are found in developing countries like Bangladesh , Nigeria and the Sub Saharan Region. According to WHO , as of 2013 , the causality rate caused by pneumonia is at 2 million, amongst children under the age of five. This dramatically rising number proves that there is a need to understand the etiology of this infection , and determine what factors can be assessed to help in early detection of pneumonia.
PHPC 3015 Critical review of prevention and control programmes of Legionnaire disease in Hong Kong Name: Wong Chui Hei SID: 1155062441 Introduction Legionnaire’s Disease has been one of the major pneumonia cases in Hong Kong. Most cases occurred are due to the infectious agent Legionella serogroup 1 bacteria. The patients will first develop chills, headache, fever, muscle pain and may appear other symptoms later, including cough, which may bring up mucus and sometimes blood, chest pain, shortness of breath and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea. (1) There are mainly three types of outbreaks, including nosocomial, community-acquired and travel-associated outbreak. Institutional/nosocomial outbreak risk of hospital’s water
Determinants of Pneumonia in children Indonesia study case Introduction Pneumonia commonly is caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and some strains of respiratory virus like influenza, parainfluenza, and adenovirus (NCID, 2005). This disease in children is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing and chest indrawing. (Wardlaw et al, 2006) Pneumonia contributes greatly for children death below 5 year in the world. Figure 1 describes that more than 10 million children in the world die before they reach their fifth birthday. Approximately 2.6 millions children younger than 5 years die annually from Pneumonia, most of them in the low income country.
It is estimated that there are about 164.7 million cases of this bacillary dysentery around the world annually. More than half of this number is believed to occur in developing countries. Further, records of occurrences of Shigellosis in these countries found S. flexneri to be the most pre-dominant cause of shigellosis (Kotloff, et al., 1999). Shigella spp. are obligate human pathogens and do not infect other hosts.
Moreover, the Philippine Department of Health (2010) claims, “In the Philippines, although rabies is not among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, rabies is considered a significant public health problem for two reasons: 1) It is one of the most acutely fatal infections and 2) It is responsible for the death of 200-300 Filipinos annually (p. 204).” On the contradictory, Region 4A has been identified as the second region in the Philippines with the most number of rabies exposures after Manila accounting to 102,512 cases in 2015 (Department of Health, 2015). The aforementioned figures only pertains to the reported cases meaning that there are far more people infected with rabies who may not be knowledgeable of the disease and treat it as common