However, orange juice also has electrolytes and these are naturally occurring, not man made. Although water is also a liquid recommended for exercise, it is not used for strenuous exercise because it has no electrolytes. I predict that while running an electric charge through both orange
2-bromobutane would have been expected to react next, due to bromine being a better leaving group than chlorine, then 2-chlorobutane. Tert-butyl-chloride would be expected to never react in a SN2 reaction, as it is so unreactive under these conditions. For each of the molecules used in this experiment (except tert-butyl-chloride), the nucleophile, iodine, would attack the electrophilic carbon bonded to the leaving group, chloride or bromide. That leaving group would then take the
Hydrogen gas was generated during the reaction which was seen when bubbles were formed as the penny was dissolved into the beaker. An error that could have been present during the lab includes not letting the zinc react completely with the chloride ions by removing the penny too early from the solution. For instance, the percent error of this lab was 45.6%, which was determined by the subtraction of the theoretical percent of Cu 2.5% and the experimental percent of Cu 3.64% and dividing by the theoretical percent of Cu 2.5%. This experiment showed how reactants react with one another in a solution to drive a chemical reaction and the products that result from the
Arsenate can replace inorganic phosphate in step 6 of glycolysis that produces 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phospahte. This yields 1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate instead, which is unstable and quickly hydrolyzes, forming the next intermediate in the pathway, 3-phosphoglycerate. This is the same product that is normally formed in step 7. This is a problem because the product forms before it should and therefore does not reach the enzyme so the energy released cannot be harvested to generated ATP. Arsenate wastes energy by the uncoupling phosphotransfer reaction so its very POISONOUS.
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see how long it takes for the 10 spinach leaf discs to undergo photosynthesis and thereby rise in the two solutions. Hypothesis: All of the leaf discs in the sodium bicarbonate solution should be floating before the discs in plain water because the bicarbonate is a carbon source that will allow photosynthesis to continue. Background: Light is absorbed by leaf pigments (chlorophyll) which makes electrons within a photosystem moved to a higher energy level. The leaves then make ATP, which reduces NADP to NADPH, and add CO2 into organic molecules. When the leaves go through the process of a light-dependent reaction by being placed in water, oxygen is created through photosynthesis and is released into the interior of the leaf.
The chloride ion is more polar since it is above bromine on the periodic table and is more prone to hydrogen bonding due to its smaller size. Chloride ions are worse than bromine ions for nucleophilic attack, because the chloride ions are fully solvated and are not as available to attack. This is why Bromine ion is better nucleophile because is less electronegative and is willing to give up electrons. 3. What is the principal organic by-product of these two reactions?
They found that carbon dioxide needed to be activated to build hydroxybenzoic acids with alkali metal phenoxide. They came to this realization by coordinating the alkali metal with the carbon dioxide. This caused the formation of the MOPh-CO2 complex. As the carboxylation reaction proceeded, a direct carboxylation of the benzene ring with another molecule of carbon dioxide did not take place, instead, the CO2 moiety of the MOPh-CO2 complex performed an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring in the ortho and para positions. It was shown that the intramolecular conversion of the MOPh-CO2 complex was the most responsible for the products distribution of the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
Though there is starch in the mix of chemicals, the triiodide doesn 't react with it because that starch is immediately consumed in a reaction with the thiosulfate. Equation 2: I3S- + 2 S2O32- → 3 I- + S4O62- • I3S- = Triiodide • S2O32- = Thiosulfate ion • 3 I- = Iodide ion • S4O62- = Tetrathionate ion Here, the triiodide reacts with thiosulfate to form iodide ions and tetrathionate. This reaction is so fast that none of the triiodide has time to form a complex with starch, even though the starch is in the reaction mix. The reactions in Equations 1 and 2 are moving along during the lag time between mixing the chemicals and the dramatic appearance of the blue color. Note that iodide ions are regenerated in Equation 2, so they are available to react with the hydrogen peroxide in Equation 1.
1. The reaction is an oxidation and reduction reaction. Bubbles were observed because oxygen is being release from the reaction as a gas as part of the reduction part of the reaction. Enzymes work efficiently at a body temperature of 37o C therefore if the enzyme was boiled before adding it to the peroxide there would be no bubbles due to the fact that the enzyme would be denatured. The enzyme would be inactivated.
Moreover, the desorpsi interaction of phosphate in the copolymer is more dominated by inter and intra-molecular interactions and hydrogen bonding between the functional groups in the copolymer with phosphate anion. At pH 10.05 solution is suspected OH- ion will take the H atom in -NH2, so that it make -NH- group because an excess of electrons. The negatively charged copolymer repel each other with a phosphate anion so that the amount of phosphoric is out of the copolymer
The purpose of this experiment was to see which solute, Splenda, granulated sugar, or salt, would dissolve the fastest in distilled water. Solutes can only dissolve in solvents when they are polar. A polar bond is a covalent bond that has two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed (About Education.com). This causes it have a dipole or separation of electrical charges moment making it polar. For example, in a water molecule the electrons are not shared equally because the oxygen has more of a charge than the hydrogen bonds making the hydrogens pull towards the oxygen.
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.
An example of a redox reaction would be, again, the addition of magnesium metal to hydrochloric acid: Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2. Here, the magnesium metal originally had a charge of "0" (since it was by itself) and hydrogen originally had a charge of "+1". After the reaction, however, magnesium has a charge of "+2" and hydrogen has a charge of "0" (again, because it is now by itself). Because of this, it is said that magnesium experienced oxidation, or went up in charge, and hydrogen experienced reduction, or went down in charge, hence why this reaction exemplifies a
This was because the lower the elements are down a group, the larger the size of its atomic radii. This makes it easier for the electron to be released to react with hydrogen gas either in water or in hydrochloric acid. Magnesium reacts with oxygen resulting in a bright white flame and produced magnesium oxide. After the combustion was completed, magnesium oxide was placed into the beaker containing water and the pH level of the solution was neutral. It could produce a basic solution if the oxide layer of the magnesium ribbon was cleaned completely, to ensure that it does not hinder the reaction between magnesium and
However, once melted or dissolved in a polar solvent (such as water) they can easily conduct electricity. This is due to the ions being in a fixed position and being unable to move around freely when in a solid state. A solid ionic compound is a non-conductor of electricity but once melted or dissolved in water, the lattice is broken down and the ions can freely move around. Resulting in, electrical